11 thoughts on “SPECULATION

  1. Reposts from 2013

    Speculation here means both playing with the concepts and plots from existing fiction, interpreting and developing ideas about them (no prizes for guessing where I’ll start), but also developing new concepts and ideas both for Sci Fi content and its writing techniques.

    • While we are on the topic, the Timelines of Doctor Who have always been a bit puzzling, do they actually make sense? And does it matter if they do or don’t? The answer to the second question is easy, yes of course it does, the more fantastic a story the more ‘realistic’ it has to be to make it plausible. Even if it only follows its own internal logic consistently. Children are even better than adults at spotting this kind of thing so its particular important here. We could also argue that its part of a childhood education to foster a coherent plot line to train young minds to think rationally and scientifically, to avoid being waylaid by political sophists and religion later in life. However Doctor Who now has wider appeal than the children’s program it started out as, it also has an adult following and appeals to them too. Science Fiction fans are sticklers for internal logic. But it is also fun, creating a coherent timeline for an alternative world that has got somewhat confusing is a great intellectual exercise, akin to the Holmesian game, played by fans of Conan Doyle’s detective stories, who try to resolve anomalies and contradictions in the tales and to clarify the metastory, even to the point of adding new linking tales. This kind of thing has a practical aim too, it creates a potential resource for writers working on expanding this alternative world. Both these intentions are present here. But is this possible for this particular show? The TV series is convoluted enough, fifty years of weekly adventures, even though in short seasons, by a multitude of different writers, has created a mind numbing history of the ‘Whoniverse’. This is the canon with its own issues. But when we add the numerous spin offs in novels, comics and audio and stage plays, in which writers rarely respect the over all continuity of the series, we tend to arrive at a huge mess. The BBC has wisely restricted itself to the TV canon, but even here provides only a vague guide, outside of certain landmark events and a few established micro-histories. Fans have attempted their own detailed chronologies both online and in print, but few have been successful, and most just add to the confusion. The only published work that can be said to be well thought out is Ahistory. This bravely tries to make sense of the diverse accounts in a coherent way. In many cases this has produced a clever rationalization of events, while in others its determination to synthesise so much material, including even what we will call here the ‘myths’ and ‘spurious legends’ of ‘popular pamphlets’, rather than just the well documented and televised histories, has caused it to become rambling confusion that is very difficult to read. I’ve thus used Ahistory where it helps and ignored it where it doesn’t. I also think Ahistory is particularly poor when it comes to the popular Dalek history. The same can be said of all the specialist material focusing on the Daleks and Cybermen for example. However I think concentrating on these crucial subhistories is the best way to build up a skeletal framework for the whole chronology without it becoming too unwieldy. I have followed Ahistory in the principle of avoiding the lazy option of evoking ‘alternative timelines’ to explain contradictions, which can fragment narratives too much, though sometimes this is impossible. As for the current season we can also evoke the Great Intelligence and the Clara(s) in the Doctor’s own Timeline, who constantly battle to modify it. This can reconcile any internal contradictions to some extent, but only works on the Doctor’s Timeline, not those more detached from it. So it too should be treated sparingly I think. A general principle has been to treat the televised stories as canon and the rest as supporting material, where this matches and enhances the canon it is included, where it contradicts it it shall be regarded as myth and legend, just as in real history. And from the beginning the narrative shall be taken as real. So to begin here’s a Timeline, or two, for the Daleks (50 years old on Dec 21st, 2013), as best I can make out. As stated already I’ve given priority to broadcast material as the canon, except where a narrative gap requires more information, where I appeal to non-canon material or additional writing, by Terry Nation etc, to fill it. I can truly claim to have watched nearly all the surviving TV series over the years, from the mid 60s onwards, heard half the radio plays, read quite a few novels and even one or two comics, though beyond this I’ve had to rely on secondary sources, principally Ahistory, therefore this is an ongoing project subject to updating. The first tale The Daleks is often taken to be the earliest Dalek account (other than their creation history told much later). However this was not the original idea and is contradicted by the Doctor himself in the next tale, set in the 22nd century, where he claims the events on Skaro took place a million years in the future. They thus represent the last Daleks dieing on Skaro in this view, with the Thals degenerated into primitives. Some have taken this at face value, and it is a nice simple thesis. The first tale also being the last tale has a poetic aspect as well. Unfortunately this doesn’t fit very well into a coherent history of all the known stories. The current BBC narrative claims this future date was a guess and what the Doctor was wrong (surely not!?). The revised version, which makes a little more sense in the whole Dalek narrative, is that this first tale just represented an enclave of Daleks trapped on a relatively early Skaro, after other Daleks had abandoned the planet. So while the first story was formerly set in 1,002,160 AD by the time of the Dalek Invasion (the earliest record of The Daleks script has 3000 AD and the later 2300 AD, suggesting a mere thousand or hundred years after the Invasion), it was later revised to a much earlier period prior to all the later episodes, and perhaps a simple space trip to Skaro in 1963 was involved (all years are Earth years here). The Tardis was at the time trying to return to a 1963 Earth but malfunctioned. Significantly a malfunctioning Tardis had got to the right time, wrong planet, and vice versa, at least twice in the series, perhaps more, so this may be a constant tendency. This alas is all we have to go on here, but it fits a tidy pattern. If we take 1963 as our starting point, given the info from both The Daleks and Genesis of the Daleks, the thousand year war between the totalitarian Kaled / Dal scientists and the Thal military empire, that spawned the Daleks, would have begun in 463 AD and continued till the Neutronic War of 1463, 500 years prior to their final demise. The war ended when the losing Thal side desparately detonated a Neutron Bomb, mutating the Dals into the creatures inside the Dalek vehicles, but destroying their own civilization in the process, and reducing themselves to primitivism (they had presumably hoped the Dals would be killed rather than mutated by the radiation, as they lacked the Thal’s antidote). They later blame the Daleks for the bomb (but this makes little sense if they were winning and various tellings gave varied blame for the bomb). An issue here is that the Neutronic War is described in the The Daleks as lasting one day rather than a thousand years, as in Genesis, but the thousand years may have been divided into several shorter wars, in which the Neutronic War was the last. The Daleks in this scenario would be created by and from existing Dal mutants circa 1460 AD, following the Neutron Bomb explosion, and survived at a higher level of technology due to the shielded infrastructure of their deep city shelter. The Thals confessed they were not great scientists like the Dals, and so did not have equivalent protection from either the shockwave, radiation or EMP pulse, other than a limited amount of the radiation antidote (which they only seem so have given to blondes!). This was a desparate attempt at survival in the long term. It is stated the Daleks needed radiation to survive however, indicating they had adapted to the lower level of radiation that penetrated their shields and mutated them. An expedition into space by a small number of Daleks could have occurred within a hundred years of this event, and the space born Daleks could be descended from them over the next few centuries. Meanwhile in the same time span the Skaro Daleks ran out of resources and were reduced to their dodgem car existance in the underground city (notably in Genesis of the Daleks they do not have this restriction so it must be a later one, but not do they have it after the Invasion of Earth). The problem here is why do the Skaro Daleks believe they are the last Daleks? One explanation would be that the space expedition was a secret one launched by their creators and unknown to them. With the expedition instructed not to return until they had forged an empire. They do return in the 25th century when they rebuild the city, which lasts for another 500 years. Daleks in Space The Offworld Daleks probably began a predictable thousand year conquest drive, which peaked with the invasion of Earth some 700 years later in the 22nd century (some narratives place them arriving from another galaxy at this time, but it is unlikely that they would have reached Earth even in a millennia if that were true, so we can assume they are within 500 light years from Earth, about the distance of ‘Earth’s Twin’ Kepler-186f at 490 ly). Prior to this they are said to have destroyed 15 Earth colonies in 2149 AD. They supposedly invaded Earth in 2157 AD and were defeated sometime around 2167 AD (though launched a second attack in North America between 2188 and 2190). This was followed by the brief 1st Dalek War (2200 – 2205 AD). These Daleks had dishes on their back with power beamed to them unlike their cousins on Skaro, who took power from the city floor, and so were only a slight advance technologically despite the 700 years between them (a factor that led some to think that the Invasion occured shortly after the Skaro events via surviving Daleks rather than the other way around). But as we later discover in Genesis of the Daleks the newly created Daleks needed neither. Perhaps this batch of Daleks left later than thought and were still low on resources like their Skaro cousins, with some newer device enabling them to leave the city, but this doesn’t quite fit their forgotten status. It may be then that in the 700 years preceeding the invasion some serious defeat had weakened them, and they only recovered again after the 22nd century when their resources were replenished and their internal power packs and solar panels were again possible. An alternative theory is that after the Daleks died on Skaro in 1963, or whenever, the Thals inherited their technology and built an interplanetary society. But generations later the Daleks reawaken and sieze control, forcing the Thals to flee and themselves launch a Galactic Empire using Thal technology. But how they ‘awaken’ is never explained and seems unlikely. Another mooted alternative was that the Daleks were reawakened just before the Dalek Invasion of Earth by a human expedition to Skaro. But they did not have space travel in the original Daleks story so this seems unlikely too. As is the idea that the Dalek mutants actually survived, even if as a stage play, The Curse of the Daleks, claimed there were only fifty years between the events of the first two Dalek tales. Neither of these theories work, not even in combination, so I think these theories can be dismissed as myths. Another lesser known problem is the fact they no longer seem to require a radioactive environment to operate in. Presumably they built radioactive elements into their casing. Though even this is contradicted when the Daleks seek the Thal antidote, that should be poison to them if they have biologically adapted to need radioactivity. Genesis of the Daleks attempted to clear up the origin of the Daleks but added its own problems. Here the Dals are called Kaleds and begin to mutate prior to the Neutron Bomb, due to centuries of Chemical Warfare. The process being accelerated and refined by Kaled scientist Davros, already half Dalek himself. The dating of this story is a complete mystery, it is often thought to be just prior to the Neutronic War between Dals and Thals, but Ahistory claims it is over a thousand years earlier and the later Dals are mutant descendants of the Thals. The print version of the origin of the Daleks in comic form (The Daleks, TV Century 21) adds a further continuity problem in that here the Dals are blue skinned dwarves who create the Daleks, or rather mass produce them at the behest of the first mutant Dalek. We can either dismiss this as a myth or try to incorporate it (at least in part). At the end of Genesis the Daleks were sealed in a bunker and there were still mutated Kaleds on the surface as well as Thals. As the Dals have a certain similarity to Davros we could assume these were mutant Kaleds who continued the war, and at some stage released the Daleks around the time of the last Neutronic War that destroyed both civilizations and created further mutation. The gap between their creation by Davros and their proliferation by the Dals, is not likely to have been more than a century however (placing Genesis some time after 1363). It was thus probably the Dals who launched the secret Dalek space mission in 1463, before the Neutronic War which destroyed the Thal civilization and sealed the Daleks in their city. In the original version of this story the Daleks invade the Galaxy under the Golden Dalek Emperor, defeat the Mechanoids in a long battle and invade Earth. They also spawn humanised Daleks under Zeg. This gives us a strong indication of a confused history. The Mechanoids arent created till around 3000 AD, centuries after the invasion of Earth, though they do fight them. While Dalek Zeg and the humanised Daleks are obviously Dalek Sec and his fellow Cult of Skaro members as well as the Human Factor Daleks of the Evil of the Daleks. Thus these stories contain a muddled truth (cynics who think the Whoniverse is a fiction might say these plot ideas were simply later reused, which would of course be rediculous). The existance of the Gold Emperor, and his legendary First Empire, prior to the Invasion of Earth is thus controversial, though given no similar figure exists in the Canon it is possible. But if so he is destroyed in some prior defeat. An Emperor Dalek is not seen in canon stories till 3000 AD, after the Daleks have returned to Skaro and recolonized it in the 25th century. Early Dalek Hierarchy According to some accounts the Early Daleks had a flamboyant colour scheme, but this decadence seems to have been firmly eradicated from the dominant timeline (however the alternative ‘Cushing Zone’ timeline can still be reached, most simply by a kind of tangential time travel technology called a Dimensional Variant Device or DVD). The Daleks at the time of the Invasion were ruled by the Supreme Dalek, an ordinary Black Dalek, who obeyed Supreme Command (offworld, though Skaro is never mentioned), there were also the Saucer Commanders (black and silver) and possibly the Supreme Dalek’s Military Commander (red), in charge of the Dalek army. Rumours of a Gold Emperor Dalek ruling Supreme Command at this time may simply be a legend. The Black Dalek was sometimes called the Dalek Prime and said to be the Dalek who ‘killed’ Davros and became their first leader. An Emperor role was filled by several Daleks when they actually had an empire, it was generally fitted into a special larger casing (there were at least three Dalek Emperors, in 3000, 5400 and 200,000. Four if Davros is included and five if there was a Golden Emperor). The Red Supreme Dalek of the Time War seems on his way to becoming an Emperor. Dalek Reproduction These Offworld Daleks must have replicated rapidly. The exact mode of Dalek reproduction is uncertain. The early series implied the mutants were propagated by some kind of asexual reproduction (much like microorganisms and a few species of fish, amphibian or reptile, the former by budding and the later by self fertilizing egg). In addition to this some episodes refer to Dalek Incubators, a term generally used for devices assisting the growth of microorganisms, eggs and neonates. Genesis of the Daleks also mentions ‘hatching tanks’. So although they were ultimately produced from mutated humanoids the octopoid mutants must produce something like eggs or spawn of some kind. We can make some comparisons here with cephalopods, the nearest in form to the Dalek mutants, produce one batch of eggs in their lives, though sometimes numbering hundreds of thousands, of which thousands may hatch but only a couple of dozen survive into adulthood. Their offspring take about a year to mature into intelligent animals. This is unlikely to be the case with Dal mutants but the process may be similar. A main difference is that Daleks are far more intelligent, which probably means they will need a longer development period, and are rumoured to be able to survive for well over a thousand years in their shells. Regular spawning would be inconvenient and so probably be undesirable for Daleks geared for constant war, so in that case they may prefer to induce maximum spawning once at an early age, say a few years into maturity after a little basic training. We might guess realistically that each Dal produces a batch once in its lifetime, which takes fifteen years to mature and five years to train. How big the batch would be is hard to say, but with incubation most would survive. In one early episodes the spawn are removed from a Daleks case by hand, so cannot be very many. Lets wildly guesstimate seven. On that basis if there were around twenty Daleks on the first ship from Skaro, then there would be about half a million a hundred years later. This is also the same rate of reproduction given for Daleks from the year 5000 AD in The Long Game, based on the survival of the Emperor’s ship after the Time War, so I think this wild guess is justified. There is a problem however with the Power of the Daleks, where three Daleks seem produce ‘several hundred Daleks’ in about a week at most! But this seems to be because these Daleks were using a cloning procedure without a development period. In that context they could produce hundreds in a short time, from harvested alien DNA and biomass (including humans) patterned to a Dal adult genetic template. This would have been a big advance for the Daleks, not only in raising numbers quickly but also generating more diversity in the Dal genome, as all asexually produced offspring are identical. If we apply that to the numbers given in The Long Game, we get a cloning rate of one Dal every two hours, also giving half a million in a century, as well as 200 in about a week (and the Daleks of Power probably came from the future). When this lab cloning began and the natural parthenogenesis ended is difficult to say, but I think its unlikely to have been a technical achievement of the Kaleds and so would have been a Dalek development sometime during their early empire. But the first Daleks would have been reproducing naturally and reached fifteen million in about 130 years. Fifteen Million is significant as strategically it would arguably be just enough to begin an invasion of an Earth like planet in its 21st century (based on the rule of thumb of a three to one minimum ratio for an assured invasion, and the number of trained solders currently on Earth being about 5 million, though the ratio may well be less for Daleks) Such a force could then partially withdraw, and the Invasion script suggests only a few hundred Daleks per nation, while world order is maintained by converted armies of Robo-men (metaphorically little change from now in fact!). Dalek Time Travel Conundrums In The Power of the Daleks an Earth colony is based on Vulcan, described as a planet light years away but one of the earliest colonies (probably making it Sol’s closest neighbour in the Alpha Centauri system). Some say it was Earth’s first colony named after the Star Trek planet (known to exist in the series’ fictional world). These early colonists encounter Daleks for the first time in a crashed space pod. This must therefore be advanced in Earth history but prior to 2150 (unless we are dealing with a different timeline, which would be a cop out). The most likely time is 2120 AD. The oddity is these Daleks are more advanced than those who invade Earth a generation later. But it has been pointed out by many commentators that the Daleks had time travel later in their history, and so linear time is not really applicable here. With this caveat in mind we can, to some extent, use Dalek design to judge eras (unless we want to put it all down to accidental prop design, which would be silly : http://www.thedoctorwhosite.co.uk/dalek/types/). The Daleks of Power of the Daleks and the later Evil of the Daleks (60s mark 3 types, with no dishes) are a little closer to the Daleks of Invasion (60s mark 2 types, with dished) than to the Daleks of the 26th century (70s mark 3 types, the new grey ones), but are even closer to the Daleks of Master Plan set in the 41st century from the Hartnell period (upgraded 60s mark 3 types). They could thus be either more advanced invasion scouts or more likely distant time travelers from the future. A counter to this claim might be that as time travel is not mentioned in this story and it must be close to the invasion period, a contemporaneous existence with 2120 AD seems plausible, a good time period after the Mars colonization of 2058, or the Cyber attack on the Moonbase of 2070. But given the appearance of these Daleks this is very unlikely. Some have also note the pods seem bigger inside than outside, indicating they are dimensionally transcendent like a Tardis, technology not achieved till the 41st century by the Daleks. This is also indicated by the fact the script says they have been buried by the crash for 200 years (which would be since the mid 20th century). Mysteriously the Power Daleks recognize the Second Doctor even though he has just regenerated. This may or may not further indicate they are time travelers. It is often taken to mean The Evil of the Daleks occurs before the Power in the Timeline (this is the only time the Second Doctor meets the Daleks before the Five Doctors in the televised canon). Yet all the Daleks on Skaro in Evil are destroyed it seems. It may simply be that the Daleks ‘Time scooped’ in the Five Doctors were from a period prior to the Daleks of Power, but this seems unlikely. The shell design suggests they were from the 26th century (70s mark 3), prior to their invention of advanced time travel (perhaps the experience triggered their research, which could have been achieved in more primitive form facilitating the events of the Day of the Daleks and Evil of the Daleks). Information from these Daleks must have been retrieved somehow by the Daleks in Power. But this only makes sense if the Daleks are time travelling from after the 26th century and the only time travel technology hinted at is a capsule from nearer the 41st century rather than a time corridor. So they must be after both these episodes. The information must survive somehow. Daleks from the Day of the Daleks appear to be from the 26th century (70s mark 3) and don’t recognize the Pertwee Who, while those in Death to the Daleks do, thus creating another continuity problem, as the latter were supposed to be in the 25th century. This might be simply due to a lack of rare data about the earlier encounter and security clearance among Daleks or perhaps the Daleks of Death are also time travellers from a much more distant period? In The Day of the Daleks future Daleks time travel back to the 20th century prior to both Power and Invasion, in an attempt to ensure a changed history remains reality. Their defeat on Earth by the first Doctor must have been a turning point in their Empire’s history that needs correcting to worry about this so much. But their time travel is quite primitive via a ‘time corridor’, as opposed to the Tardis-like Dardis devices used much later in The Chase and Masterplan. The Daleks are also very different to the 41st century Daleks of Masterplan, who developed advanced time travel, creating some continuity problems. Further more the Doctor discovers that the Daleks are from a late 22nd century, where they are victorious and have replaced Robo-men with Ogrons having invaded much earlier. Their appearance and technology thus unequivocally dates them to the 26th century! This may just be sloppy presentation (far beyond the pragmatic use of available props), but I think we have to take the record of this period seriously. The commitment of this story to some idea of rational continuity is demonstrated by the fact its tellers wanted to add that the Daleks weren’t destroyed in Evil of the Daleks, but instead defeated the rebel Daleks and regained control. Fortunately this was not included in the script, as that would only have added more confusion. A confusing muddle as it is I think, but one that makes sense if the time traveling Daleks are really from the 26th or 27th century, and have limited time travel ability allowing them to travel to both the 22nd and 20th centuries in order to correct their earlier history. This could have been developed in the 27th century, as neither the original 22nd century Daleks nor the mainstream 26th century Daleks appear to use time travel at all, or more intriguingly passed on to 27th century Daleks by yet later Daleks who were regularly using more advanced time technology! Time travel makes everything complex. But it seems Daleks from the 27th century intervened in the 22nd century, or possibly before, to try to correct their history, but achieved only partial success, along with authority over the 22nd century Daleks in that location, but then go back to the 20th century to modify the time line further. More precisely they engineer a misguided human resistance attack on a peace mission in the 20th century, the result of which is a nuclear war that eases an earlier invasion and makes it impossible to defeat. They then go back themselves to prevent an interferance in this new timeline, but fail and the timeline returns to normal (leaving only a minor intervention in the 2160s). The Dalek Supreme Council was a new addition in the 26th century, with its gold Daleks, who appear in both Day of the Daleks (coming from the 22nd century to the 20th century) and the Frontier in Space (set in the 26th century). This indicates a change in power structure from the older Black Dalek Prime regime of the 22nd century. One of their leader having several structural similarities to Daleks from an earlier broadcast era (due to a reused prop cynics say), but with the later solar panels, in other words like Daleks from after the 30th century period. The first televised Gold, Black and White Dalek being the 31st century Emperor from Evil of the Daleks. This could support influence from the future, but more likely reflects prototype tendencies in the 26th and 27th centuries. There is a mention of the Dalek War in Death to the Daleks, normally said to have occurred before Frontier in Space and Planet of the Daleks, probably in the late 25th century, even though televised later (a confusing factor in any time travel series), and through out this period the Daleks seem very limited in their numbers, until they mass produce a new generation in Planet of the Daleks a century later. In Death to the Daleks a plague has been unleashed to wipe out non-Dalek races and they are preventing an antidote being recovered (a strategy of an asymmetrical conflict). This is foiled by a human intervention, perhaps a key fact. The Daleks here look like 27th century Daleks other than that they are silver like 31st century Daleks, so may be as type intermediate between the two. This implies time travel from the 29th century, or a later date to this story, though the events do not fit the latter. Some years in later in 2540 AD the Daleks attempt to generate a war between the Empires of Earth and Draconia (Frontier in Space), as well as try to achieve invisibility (Planet of the Daleks), but are defeated with the help of Thals who have achieved space travel. They seem few in number. It is plausible that the Daleks had been devastated in an earlier war, probably ending sometime later in the mid 25th century (one non-canon story mentions a Dalek War between 2459 and 2480 AD, at which time they seemed to recolonize Skaro 500 years after the conquest of the City and build a brief 2nd Empire). They may have been partially saved by the intervention of time traveling Daleks from the 29th century fulfilling a role necessary to their survival in a closed time loop (Death to the Daleks). Because of this they are able to muster enough Daleks to fight the 3rd Dalek War between 2540 and 2575 AD. Either way it appears Dalek time travel is developed in the 27th century but isn’t used routinely till the Evil of the Daleks in the 31st century, where they use a dimensionally normal Time Cabinet which open up a Time Corridor. In this period they build the 3rd Empire of the Daleks but are destroyed in a civil war on Skaro due to experimentation with the Human Factor. They mysteriously seem to survive this however, as later in the 40th century during the events of The Chase they have a Tardis like time machine, called a ‘Dardis’ in early scripts. This is a Hartnell era story but clearly later in time than the Troughton era Daleks. While the Daleks in Chase know nothing events in The Daleks’ Master Plan. The time order then must be Evil of the Daleks in the 31st century, followed by a significant gap, then Chase and Master Plan in the 40th and centuries. The Chase Daleks visit Mechanus in the 32nd century, but they are time traveling so this is not that significant, they are probably a lot closer to the Master Plan era in the 41st century given their technology. A slight problem with this dating is the Daleks of the Chase are hunting down the Doctor for his role in expelling them from Earth. This leads some to assume it happens just after it, but given the technological difference this is impossible. But oddly between the invasion of Earth and the Chase the Doctor had destroyed Skaro, but this is not mentioned. It must have been that the presence of the first Doctor in the 41st century triggered a bounty alarm in a Dalek time ship where as the later Doctors though recognised hadn’t. It was said in 3500 AD that the Daleks had not been active in our Galaxy for centuries but were now returning (in fact since 3000 AD when they attempted a surprise invasion of Earth and were defeated in the 4th Dalek War, after which they are destroyed in a civil war on Skaro). But in the 41st century they hadn’t been seen for a thousand years (also since 3000 AD, implying the incursions of 3500 AD were very limited, even though they tend to be refered to as the 5th Dalek War which lasted till 3600 AD). In the meantime, we later learn, they battled the Movellan androids from Andromeda on the edge of our Galaxy from the 31st century onwards and are said to have conquered planets in the ’Ninth Galaxy’ (sometimes referred to as the Seriphia Galaxy). How they became intergalactic is not stated, but was perhaps after the defeat of the Movellans, who invaded from the Andromeda Galaxy, or with help from the basic time tunnel technology of the 27th century. This also explains how they survived their apparent destruction on Skaro in the 31st century, they already had a space mission penetrating Andromeda under a different command. By 4000 AD they had forged a short lived Inter-Galactic Alliance against Earth and its allies portrayed in The Daleks’ Master Plan. This was probably due to those Daleks still based in the 9th Galaxy who were led by a Black Supreme Dalek again. Whether they recolonized Skaro is not clear. There are non-canon tales of a combined Anti-Dalek War and counter offensive in the 42nd century, with Terry Nation’s Dalek Book and its sequels closing the gap between the period of the Master Plan and the end of this Dalek War, as well as other loose ends. It is said in this time the Daleks briefly invade Earth again as well as all the planets of the solar system during a 6th Dalek War. Their next major engagement with Earth in this era comes in the 55th century when they attack again from their far base in the 9th Galaxy creating a 4th Dalek Empire, beginning a 7th Dalek War which raged till the 59th century (and included the removal of the Thals to Davias and new experimentation with the Thal Factor and the Brotherhood of Daleks). The final Dalek War in this era is said to have been in the 76th century when the Daleks were finally defeated. The Time Lords predicted eventual total victory for the Daleks and their mastery of our Galaxy, leading the Celestial Intervention Agency to send a deniable Doctor Who back in time to change their history. Given that they conquered Galaxy Nine in five hundred years this seems hard to believe, our galaxy being 400 times larger and so taking till almost 200,000 AD to conquer at the same rate. But what the Time Lords really feared was the development of dimensionally transcendent time machines achieved by the Daleks of the 40th century. Time and its Paradoxes Before moving on to the next Dalek era and an apparently modified timeline we need to follow slight tangent. As this opens up an issue that needs examining, the philosophy of time travel used in the series. How can you really change history and maintain order? The series buys into the branching time line theory of alternative or parallel universes, a popular fringe view in Physics, as well as a version of the Novikov Self-Consistency Principle, known in the series as the ‘Blinovitch Limitation Effect’, this is an idea from the Philosophy of Time, that prevents certain paradoxes from occuring, like shooting yourself in the past, but the tales also have their own idiosyncratic interpretations and ideas (some of which are merely lazy ‘explanations’). This topic deserves an article in itself later, but an outline is useful here. Closed time loops are considered plausible in Physics but not paradoxes. The former occurs when an event in the past is necessary to cause an event in the future, when the past event is caused by an agency from the future, the time traveller have to do what they do in order to maintain their own history. Whereas a paradox occurs when an event in the past is negated by time travelers, who are dependent on that event, thus also negating themselves and making their influence impossible (some might argue for a non-linear holistic causation, in which self negation was possible, but that would be negating matter/energy and contravening the conservation laws on which a closed, cyclic universe depends for its very existence). A similar paradox might also occur if a time traveling son fathered themselves in the past on their own mother, not because the laws of physics reject incest, simply because the person would be a new creation from itself a new input of matter, or free energy, from nowhere, once again contravening conservation principles. However rare events like this could occur if the energy gained from one event balenced that lost from another, but that would be a very improbable occurence of two parallel paradoxes! The closed time loop phenomena can also make contingent loops rather than necessary ones, the famous example from Feynman being the time traveler with the weak shoulder who travels back in time and tries to shoot themselves only to miss due to their weak shoulder and shoot their past self in shoulder causing the weak shoulder. A causally necessary loop but not an historically necessary one, little would change if the the time travel never happened and the wound vanished. Some strange events like this are possible in theory then, at least the closed time loops, if not the freak paradoxes, but in that case what would stop the impossible ones? Some have proposed a limitation principle. Basically the time limitation principle works to prevent more serious paradoxes occuring, a gun would jam before the time traveller shot their mother in her childhood etc. Some regard such a limitation effect as too mystical, and some paradoxical events might seem unstoppable, such as simply pressing a button to start a nuclear annihilation in the past, in which case a limiting effect might seem miraculous (a heart attack occurs before the button can be pushed?). This of course might actually be the case, it may sinply be a truism that you can’t change the past, simply because even time travellers actions have aleady happened, but sober scientists dislike it. Therefore time travel might be impossible, but in Dr Who that isn’t an option! Without a limitation effect we would have to rely on branching timelines and alternative universes where destroying Earth in the past would not effect its future in the timeline of the travellers, it would simply create a parallel timeline in which Earth was destroyed. However many think these are impossible too, as the temporal multiverse, or ‘Metaverse’, containing all of the alternative timelines would seem to be infinite and therefore would also contravene principles of finite energy (unless this principle only applies to particular Universes rather than Metaverses, which seems unlikely as its so basic a law). The Metaverse would be infinite because it would cover all possible outcomes of all the subatomic events that ever happen in all the alternative universes! We might argue such a Metaverse is really finite as its just the sum of a number of finite Universes, yet these Universes are probably cyclic and so have no end. Some might want to argue for a finite Metaverse that brings an end to all these cyclic universes at some stage and returns eveything to finitude. But that begs the question of Cyclic Multiverses, surely just larger versions of Cyclic Universes, and off into infinite regress (and that’s not even considering neighbouring universe Multiverse theories in addition to this cycle!). We could deny the cycles and restrict every form of universe to finitude, but such finite universes then seem to pop up from nowhere, and maybe infinitely producable. Even if universe production ran out of steam, Metaverses might do the same on higher scale, and Meta-Mataverses off into infinite regress again. It could be claimed that the cyclic component allows infinite time but not infinite energy, as it recycles it (even though the sum of energy in the Metaverse would be technically infinite still), so is not contravening any conservation or limit principles applied to each universe. Yet we can’t be sure all the possibility in the Metaverse isn’t infinite itself, its at least vast and indefinite (which itself conflicts with the more detectable economic tendencies of the Cosmos). The Multiverse and parallel timeline theories thus raise as many issues as they solve! Partly due to this and many other considerations Physicists increasingly prefer the idea of a kind of Quantum Metaverse as hazy reality of indefinite yet unmanifest potential situations in superposition, with only one actualization of this ghost world. Some even think there are multiple manifest realities of the quantum potential, for different sets of perceivers/interactors, but those different realities can never interact, and are finitely related to the number of people available to manifest them (much like the alternate universe theory but with different isolated actor sets and no possible parallels). Such a model would have no branching timelines and so would rely on the limitation principle if time travel were possible in it. The Who tales don’t have this problem because they accept both the limitation principle and reality branching in their explanation of events. Which might be the case still, we just don’t know. The ultimate reality of time may well be actually inconceivable anyway and all explanations of the events merely ‘just so stories’. The series also adds a few ideas of its own that modify the real world Physics. One of the most important is the occasional distinction between a timeline and a timestream. The first reflecting the history of the universe, the second the history of an individual or object within that universe. For this reason going back in time is not the same as reversing time, as a person’s timestream curves back within the timeline (this is like having their own bubble of local Space-Time, which then moves back or forward within normal Time itself. A topological change modelling time as rubber-like dimensional plane, just as space is modeled, that can be twisted and distorted in much the same way). This is plausible within existing Physics. Another speculative way, closer to Time Lord technology, is to pull that Space-Time bubble out of the plane, making it a seperate mini-universe of its own, then reinsert it at another point, causing the immediate environment to carry on as normal but the rest of the universe to vanish and then reappear as a new space-time location (or vice versa to an outside observer). This process would seem to be potentially explosive for an environment however, and how that would be dampened is unknown. The departure might also generate a micro-black hole that would dissipate with a radiation burst. But the geometric continuum distortion provides most metaphors in the series, though characters are warned ‘not to cross their own timestream’. This latter warning relates to a stranger idea about ‘time differentials’ of ‘temporal energy’ and their ‘short circuits’ that release dangerous energy discharges (potentially damaging space-time, matter or all three). This occurs when a person meets their self from the past or future, with an energy flare passing from the older to the younger self. It can also happen between objects. The Time Lords seem a bit over cautious on this though, as it doesn’t seem to affect regenerated Time Lords in several tales, indicating they are not quite the same person (unless it seems there is a big gap of regenerations between them, typically five, when a smaller discharge seems to occurs, as when the 5th Doctor was impaired by his contact with the 10th Doctor in Time Crash. Perhaps indicting the time differential was large enough to override the resistance of the degree of difference?). This is said to be a physical manifestation of the limitation effect, an overkill principle that prevents all self interaction. The fact that Time Lord regeneration seemed to largely evade it meant that it was legally prohibited by them rather than impossible. What ‘temporal energy’ actually consists of is never clearly explained, but like all energy seems to be convertable and manifest with photonic effects on occassions. We can assume it is to time what spatial energy, or gravity, is to the movement of matter in space. So a time current will run from low temperal energy to high temporal energy, a time gradient responsible here for the arrow of time. Increasing an objects temporal energy speed up its time stream ageing it, decreasing it slows it down. It seems in the tales that an object with negative temperal energy ceases to exist. Temporal energy also seems to be related to Artron energy in some way, the mysterious psychic life force energy that powers Time Lord technology and along with temporal energy exists in high concentration in the Time Vortex through which time travellers move and is perhaps responsible for manipulating Space-time (thus useful in time travel technology, as well as telekinesis, manipulating molecules into organic forms, regenerating Time Lords, coordinating ideas into thoughts and generating synchronicities, most of which it seems to do in the stories). An oddity in this thesis is that this short circuit doesn’t always occur, and occurred much less with the Time Lords extinct. There are two explanations for this among commentators on the series, one is that the limitation effect, of which the discharge was a part, was not actually a natural law, but a psychically projected phenomena from the Time Lords. But this seems weird and makes the Time Lords out to be gods rather than aliens (an all too common modern preference for superstition over science). However the more likely alternative is that like all natural laws the limitation effect is probabilistic, and so doesn’t always occur. Though while other laws only fail one in a centillion times, this law is far weaker and can fail more often. The fact it fails more in the revived series than the classic one being simply a coincidental statistical effect, based on its commonality in the classic series. Neither of these are very satisfactory explanations, but its all we have. An even stranger aspect of the limitation effect is the law that you can’t repeat the same act, much like two identical people can’t coexist in the same space-time region, so a time travelling assassin only has one attempt. Why that is is hard to fathom other than as a plot device. Under the Self Consistency Principle any number of attempts could be made, but they would all ‘miraculously’ fail due to some unforeseen cause, because their probability was zero. Though perhaps technically there is little difference here as the limitation effect may simply be a generalized version of the same thing, the zero probability of a second attempt. It certainly simplifies stories. A final imaginative aspect of Whovian time laws is their take on singularities and other holes in space-time. These come in various types depending on the nature of the rift, crack or singularity. Some act as wormholes to other places, presumably as the hole has linked up with another hole in the void through some distortion of Space-time. A rift in the tales seems to essentially be a transverse crack, a pulling apart of Space-Time instead of a punching through, but may still connect with another fissure in Space-time. Rifts tend to have unusual features more than mere cracks (the famous ‘Cardiff rift’ seemed to have its far end mobile in space and its near end mobile in time. It was a major transit point). Others lead nowhere and are a pure singularity or void rift. Much like black holes, but without the gravitational pull. Strangely though they are possible to navigate around without falling in, or even to reach into with no ill effect, while others are instantly sucked in. A more mysterious variance, perhaps due to some kind of tidal effect in the void? These can all be created by massive gravitational effects, such as collapsing stars or giant supernova like explosions (including an exploding Tardis or Time Lord super bombs). A related strange feature of a singularity or void in space-time is that anything, even impossible things, can randomly emerge from it (or perhaps be triggered by our conscious minds). In terms of time travel it is held that the paradoxes of negation or creation, mentioned earlier, can sometimes actually occur but these will tear space-time apart, like twisting a framework to breaking point through impossible contortions, and thus creating rifts and splits, which are like the holes that cause things to be negated to or created from nothing. Though why the limitation effect fails to block these events and stop them happening is a mystery in this model, but perhaps is linked to the fact it doesn’t always work for reasons speculated on above. So given these Who laws is actually changing the past possible? Starting with the Day of the Daleks as an example of a closed time loop, which proves to be a simple predestination paradox. Time travelling human resistance fighters from the 22nd century use Dalek time technology to attempt to assassinate the politician they believe started WWIII and allowed the Dalek invasion to be successful. In fact their target prevented it and their assassination fulfilled their future. A second intervention by the Doctor prevents this attempt at modification, and the Daleks attack to preserve their timeline but fail. The infamous Blinovitch Limitation Effect is mentioned in this story to explain why only one assassination attempt can be made in that period. A bigger problem is explaining how the deviation occurred in the first place given it differs from prior 20th and 22nd history but is based on a time loop! Its a chicken and egg problem, the assassins that trigger the war come from a future that is its result. They couldn’t exist before it happened, or at the very least have the motivation, but it seems not to have been able to happen without them. How is the change initiated then? It seems it has to be from a 22nd century which never experienced a nuclear war, yet whose agents blame the diplomats for the invasion. These agents would assassinate the politician and start a nuclear war, most likely killing their immediate ancestors and so negating themselves! Unless we employ a limitation effect which selects assassins whose ancestors survived the nuclear war. Yet when they leave there had been no nuclear war! The simplest operation would be for Daleks to attack the conference, yet though they dont so this until the first attack fails and are repelled. The only answer seems to be a paradox in which both the nuclear war and the trip back that caused it happened simulataneously in a nonlinear holistic event. Yet how could such a thing happen, it seems well outside the ability of the Daleks even at their most advanced. Could some superbeing outside of our Time dimension have engineered events that Daleks capitulated on? There is no evidence for that at all however. Or could the assassins have come from a parallel timeline where the nuclear war did occur due to the failure of the conference? But then how did the assassin end up in our timeline where it didn’t occur. I think the only way to make this coherent is to assume that some of the Daleks arriving in the 22nd century from the future also slipped sideways in time and encountered the parallel world Daleks. They then colloborated with them to send their rebels across time into our timeline thus replicating these parallel events in our timeline. They could then send our future rebels into the alternative timeline insuring it retained its war. Thus both timelines would become exactly parallel, until further intervention in our timeline restored our previous future. The script originally intended these to be Daleks that survived the Civil War in Evil, which must have been a 31st century generation, confirming that they had traveled back first to the 22nd century and then to the 20th. Perhaps they originally intended on directly intervening in the 22nd century but accidentally discovered this more devious plot? However the Dalek design better fits a 27th century origin and so this was probably more likely, especially as it is now recognised that few if any Daleks escaped the Skaro Civil War. This does suggest changing history is possible. There are a few times in the series that this happens, yet the first Doctor says changing history is impossible, and this apparent acceptance of parallel timelines seems to suggest it would simply create another timeline and not change the original one. Though this is changed in later statements. Some later stories claim that only certain points in history are necessary (i.e. do not cause paradoxes) and cannot be changed while others can be. These unchangable event are called fixed points in time, either within the same historical timeline or ones personal timestream. In that case either a timeline branch or the limitation effect would have to prevent these fixed points changing, if that fails, for some odd Whovian reason, an Escher-like paradox is caused which can twist space-time into destruction, creating tears and rifts. Such a failure is unlikely with a time branching so suggest the fallable limitation principle is involved. Perhaps fixed points are the same in all possible timelines as they may be necessary priori as well as posteriori? Something to do with the structure of the Metaverse as a whole, or just ‘fate’. Unfixed points seem to be malleable if they don’t cause serious paradoxical changes to the agent’s dependent historical timeline, or crucial their own timestream. If they do the limitation effect occurs oe a new time branch is generated, otherwise a change occurs. Branching timelines seem almost redundant in this new scheme but can play a part in terms of initial quantum choices. That is in the case of multiple possibilities alternative timelines could be created, but once created they can be changed (or not) without creating a new timeline, as the future is no longer an open potential, there is a loop back from the future that ties this past to the same place the time travellers came from. A new timeline would only be forced in the event of a paradox in the timeloop, but this is normally prevented by the limitation effect. In the case of Day of the Daleks however the creation of a nuclear war that changes a timeline would seem to be a potential creator of all sorts of timeline paradoxes, unless its causal agents did not come from the same timeline as was suggested. Even so it runs the risk of destroying many fixed points, that could tear space-time apart if the limitation effect didn’t kick in. But perhaps the limitation effect can work in a delayed way and the Doctor’s restoration of the original timeline was part of the limitation effect (with the space-time strains only weakly manifested in the meantime). But what of the parallel world were the war actually happens? This would either mean no fixed points were changed here, and therefore weren’t in our timeline either, or the alternative timeline was very different to ours in other ways and so did not contain the exact same fixed points, this seems unlikely, but the structure of the Metaverse may be highly complex. 31st century Daleks had travelled back in time both to a 20th century and Victorian London on Earth to obtain Human Factor for the Daleks. This led to the Civil War that destroyed their city on Skaro. But a Dalek Empire seems to have already been established in a neighbouring galaxy. These created an intergalactic Dalek alliance in the 40th century that was again defeated. In this period they developed the Dardis, as well as a Time Destructor that could change the rate of time (presumably by channelling temporal energy), but was used it as a weapon to age the environment. None of this is problematic as no paradoxes are involved, but did represent the Daleks becoming as potentially powerful as the Time Lords. Perhaps achieving their final victory after their 55th century incursion. It was most likely at this point that the Time Lords decided to destroy the Daleks, and sent Doctor Who back to their genesis to change their timeline. This is where things get complex. Genesis of the Daleks revealed that the creator of the Daleks was the half mutated, Kaled scientist Davros, who uses his creation to take over the Kaled State, modeled on Nazi Germany, but in the original timeline is killed by them. The rival Aryan-like Thals in the war of this period are little better till a mutation and social reform in their post-apocalyptic, primitive state turns them into Swedish pacifists. A situation reminiscent of the Eloi and Morlocks in H G Wells’ Time Machine. The Time Lords want Davros killed before he can complete his experiments and the Dalek spawn destroyed in his lab. The Doctor of course rejects the last idea as a form of genocide (though he later destroys a large part of Dalek’s incubation facility). Ironically his interaction with Davros leads to the Daleks failing to kill Davros, though he is buried in a coma deep in his underground complex, until revived centuries later. This does have a serious impact on the Dalek timeline as we shall see. The Doctor leaves believing he has retarded the development of the Daleks by a thousand years. The Dalek that ‘killed’ Davros is later referred to as the Prime Dalek and becomes the Black Supreme Dalek, the progenitor of all the Supreme Daleks. Davros’ death was thus not a fixed point and neither did his return cause any paradoxes, but what else changed? There were two schools of thought on what effect this had on the Whoniverse, the conservative school thought it made only a minor change to the same timeline, basically introducing Davros into the mix and adding a new level of complexity, but not effecting the previous events very much. This is supported by evidence that most of the previous key events in the previous account still occur (many are still referred to in the new account). Most also seem to occur at the same time, for example Earth is still invaded in 2157 AD. This belies the claim they have been put back by a thousand years. Curiously however the Chase is not mentioned, so could it be that only their time travel is put back by 1000 years, time corridors to the 37th century and Dardises to the 51st century? In contrast the radical school thought everything had changed and the previous history had been eradicated as a new Timeline had split off. The BBC has sided with the latter in the main, but added the previous histories may have occurred but in a different way. In what way exactly remains a mystery. It would imply the reemergence of Davros does create unlimited paradoxes that split the timeline. Ultimately though the difference between the two accounts may not be that great, a matter simply of details and the development or not of time travel. The diagram of Dalek history below also attempts to outline the two timelines and their possible parallels. In short the continuity problem is with the retardation of Dalek development by a thousand years. If taken literally this seems to indicate the early Dalek Invasions never happened at all, yet we know from later accounts that they did. So it is difficult to know how much of the old history actually happened, and if it did in which way. The general consensus however is that very little actually changed. So the notion that some changes have occured in the same universe and the notion that the timeline has branched into an alternative universe with only a slight change, thus avoiding some paradoxes, are effectively identical given that the the narrative history has now moved into the new universe or branched timeline (if it exists, the diagram assumes it does, but the ‘timelines’ could also be taken as two histories of a single timeline / universe into diagram form). Therefore the difference becomes one of pendantic metaphysics in the main, in the branched form the old history still exists in another alternative universe / timeline, in the unbranched it no longer exists in quite the same way. It seems one significant change is the absense of the Dardis until a thousand years later (and perhaps also time corridor technology). But another important change is that the Daleks become divided with the arrival of Davros, who challanges the Dalek Prime for the rule of Emperor, and they can no longer act as a unified Empire. The canon stories post this change begins with Destiny of the Daleks during the Movellan War in Andromeda, which seems to be occurring in the same period that the Daleks left our Galaxy to fight new wars (circa 31st century onwards). Earth and Draconia are strong allies at this time. But now there is a deadlock in the Movellan War and Davros is revived on Skaro and nominated leader to save the Daleks. An impasse remains and Davros is captured by Earth troops. Ninety years later in Resurrection of the Daleks the Movellans are winning the war with the help of a Dalek specific virus. A Dalek taskforce raids the prison colony and frees Davros from cryogenic suspension. He learns of the virus and initially works to cure it. In the meantime the Daleks operate a Time Corridor to Earth in 1984 which seems to be regarded as a safe quarantine. There they encounter the Doctor and launch their first counter attack on the Time Lords by creating a duplicate android Doctor to assassinate the Time Lord High Council. They also boast of having installed Dalek replica androids in key positions on Earth in this period (quite plausibly). All this fails and Davros decides to use the virus against the Daleks and start from scratch. However he is himself infected by the virus. This marks the first events in both the Dalek Civil War and the Dalek vs Time Lord War. The narrative picks up in Revelation of the Daleks one hundred years later with Davros cured of the disease, that he has now helped eradicated, and is calling himself the Great Healer. He sets up shop on Tranquil Repose, a cryogenic and healing centre, that helped him survive, but in reality is harvesting DNA and biomass to build a new army of Daleks. These new Daleks are the ivory and gold coloured ones. The Supreme Dalek (black and grey) having also survived leads an attack from Skaro, now reoccupied and destroys this operation. The fact the Black Dalek is in charge rather than the Supreme Council Gold Daleks suggests there have been significant changes. In Remembrance of the Daleks this saga ends with both groups of Daleks using a time corridor for an incursion into Earth in 1963. Skaro has been invaded by the Imperial Dalek army of Davros, now including Special Weapons Daleks, and has made himself Dalek Emperor, in a new spherical headed Dalek case. Another of his improvements on the old Daleks is to give them the ability to tackle stairs! The Supreme Black Dalek has ecaped Skaro to lead a host of Rebel Daleks from some new base, perhaps in the 9th Galaxy. The Daleks have learnt that the first Doctor hid the awesome star manipulating Hand of Omega here (presumably why he visited in the first place) and the battle is to retrieve it. This must be taking place while the first Doctor has recently left for the Stone Age, or even while arriving on the old Skaro of 1963. Davros wins, destroying the rebel Daleks, and takes the Hand to the future Skaro. But the Doctor has reprogrammed the Hand and it destroys Skaro’s Sun, turning it supernova, while the two factions on Earth fight each other to oblivion, thus wiping out the Daleks forever, it was thought. Thus 1963 saw two events wrong regarded as the end of the Daleks. Exactly when all this happens is actually hard to say. The parallels with the pre Genesis Dalek Civil War and the battle with the Andromedans leads some to suspect this is occuring in the 31st century or shortly after. It is the alternative to the Evil of the Daleks period. Yet this doesn’t quite fit that period and other stories refer to the events of Evil as actually occuring earlier, so the dating is problematic. The most sensible seems to be ahistories placement of Destiny of the Daleks around 4500 AD just after the end of the 6th Dalek War, but prior to the 7th Dalek war centuries later in the 55th century. A long gap in which in the first timeline the Daleks appear to have been defeated and fled to the Ninth Galaxy. Instead in the new timeline they are rallied after discovering Davros alive on Skaro. One problem with this is that they are fighting the Movellan War at the time, which has been dated to the post 31st century period onwards. However this war ‘lasted centuries’ and may have been spasmodic, if we assume it began slightly later around the 36th century and continued till on and off till the 46th century, then this can just fit in. The Movellan War may even have been delayed a little by the lower technological advancement of the Daleks in the second timeline and so the period be slightly shorter. A deeper puzzle is where does the Time War fit in to this history. Cont in Part Two
      • Part Two

        The Classic Series ended at this point. There is a long gap between the end of the Classic Series and the New Series, filled with contradictory non-canon radio plays, novels and fan fiction, which have been deployed by commentators in various ways to fill the gap. But the essence of these tales can be summed up with Davros surviving the destruction of Skaro and his ship in an escape pod around 4700 AD, which is subsequently intercepted by an alien craft which rescues him. Davros soon kills the crew and takes over the alien ship. He then begins recreating the Daleks from captured DNA. In one story he returns to Earth in a captured Tardis and uses human DNA to build a new race of Daleks. Meanwhile the original Daleks have reconsolidated themselves in the Ninth Galaxy (presumably descended from a group of rebel Daleks who remained guarding their colony here rather than travelling to Earth to fight Davros) and by the 50th century have created their own Empire under a new Dalek Emperor. Old hostilities are renewed and Civil War recommences. This period also seems to be the beginning of what will become the Time War. The Daleks also relaunch their invasion of our Galaxy at this time. It is thought their divided state weakens them and slows their development of advanced time travel.

        Significantly a story in the revived series reveals the Asylum of the Daleks, the damaged victims of the Dalek Wars. This includes Daleks from Exxilon (from Death to the Daleks), Spiridon (from the Planet of the Daleks), Aridius (from the Chase), Kembel (from the Dalek’s Master Plan), and even Vulcan (from the Power of the Daleks). This seems to confirm that something very like the earlier stories actually occurred.

        An important untelevised aspect was the creation of a limited number of Daleks with a human factor by one of the Emperors (it remains uncertain which one). This is another parallel with Evil of the Daleks, and so may have been part of the Davros project on Skaro inspired by the earlier experiment, though other sources associate them with the Dalek Emperor in the Ninth Galaxy. These Daleks do not rebel, presumably the previous lesson has been learnt and these ones have been indoctrinated, but instead constitute the individualized Cult of Skaro Daleks, who become a small independent faction of their own, capable of siding with either Davros or the Emperor Dalek, and valued as elite Daleks by both.

        Sometime in 5000 AD all the Daleks vanished according to human sources. This is generally taken to be the start of the Time War fought both in the Time Vortex and across space and time. The implication here is the Daleks finally developed Dardis technology a thousand years late. This would no doubt be a flash point for the war, which involved not only the Imperial Daleks and the Cult of Skaro, but also Davros in a vast fleet led by the Crucible, his ‘Deathstar’ base. The latter had created a new generation of super Daleks to fight the Time War, whose new improved abilities included regenerative powers, force fields and flight (a bit overkill really). The Time Lords in turn rolled out their most ancient weaponry and both sides released ancient horrors on each other. Most planets were unaffected as the war took place behind a Time Lock, a kind of temporal fire wall, and raged in private for an untold time. The Nestene Intelligence claimed to have been badly affected however and some races were destroyed. During the war Davros’ Death Star was destroyed by a mysterious entity called the Nightmare Child. Finally an inter-series Doctor plays a crucial role in the War, using a sentient doomsday bomb called the Moment to destroy both Gallifrey and the Dalek horde during the final siege of the planet. The Daleks were thus finally annihilated and the Doctor became the Last Time Lord. Or so it was thought. In this timeline all the subsequent Dalek stories set in the 55th and 76th centuries never happen.

        However the Moment ruptured space-time flinging a few surviving Dalek ships through cracks and rifts, and across time and space, leading to scattered survivors. One was the Dalek Emperor and the crew of his flagship who are flung into the future, as well as a handful of individual Daleks, one of whom turns up in a collection in the 20th century.

        In the post Time War era of the New Series the Dalek Emperor and his small crew are flung into the distant 200th century. Here he uses human DNA to generate a new race of Daleks which gradually and covertly take over the Earth in the Long Game and Bad Wolf stories. Naturally these are eventually obliterated.

        The Cult of Skaro escaped the Time War in a Void Ship which travels between dimensions acting like a primitive Tardis. They capture a dimensionally transcendent Time Lord prison containing millions of captured Daleks and attempt to use it to relaunch the Dalek Empire. Caught in the ‘Cardiff Space-Time rift’ they appear on Earth and launch an invasion and an accidental war with the new Cybermen. Cast back into the Void they reemerge on Earth in the 1930s, where they become involved in Dalek-Human hybrid experiments, before being finally defeated.

        A wounded Dalek Caan of the Cult of Skaro breaks through the Time Lock around the War and rescues Davros and his Crucible, bringing it back to the 21st century. Caan is driven insane by the experience however. Davros subsequently recreates the Daleks from his own cells within the Crucible and engages in plans of Galactic domination again via his New Dalek Empire, led by a new red Dalek Supreme. This is soon destroyed however.

        The last survivors of the Time War are a group of Davros Daleks sent back in time to 1941 (apparently on a Dalek Saucer converted into a Timeship). Here they attempt to manipulate events in WWII and trap the Doctor in a plot to revive the Daleks via pure Dalek DNA stored in a progenitor device. This has some parallels with the Power of the Daleks. The end result is the creation of the Telly Tubby like New Dalek Paradigm, who exterminate the Davros Daleks and declare themselves the new rulers of the Daleks. These then operate their time travel device and disappear back into the future.

        In a final story in this timeline we are transported back to a revived Skaro in the future under the Dalek Parliament, run by the New Paradigm Daleks and containing every surviving Dalek type. Here the Asylum is introduced and the Daleks are planning a New Paradigm Dalek Empire. But the Doctor erases himself from their memory banks. When this is set is unclear but is presumably after the Time War (5400 AD?) when the New Paradigm Daleks have regathered all the surviving Daleks, some of whom must have survived their destruction at Gallifrey and fled.

        One last time manipulation then occurs in the series, but it is a major one. The combined Doctors prevent the destruction of Gallifrey by convincing the Ninth ‘War Doctor’ not to detonate the Moment. They then place the entire planet in a time loop in a bubble universe, effectively vanishing it from Spacetime. This leads to the combined Doctors prevent the destruction of Gallifrey by convincing the Ninth ‘War Doctor’ not to detonate the Moment. They then place the entire planet in a time loop in a bubble universe, effectively vanishing it from spacetime. This leads to the surrounding Dalek forces destroying each other in the crossfire, annihilating themselves forever. Perhaps.

        The timeline is once again changed by this vast act. Most of the previous episodes involving Daleks in the New Series could no longer have happened. The Dalek Emperor could not have been thrown into the future and the Davros Daleks could not have been cast past, though the Cult of Skaro’s Void Ship may have escaped in a similar manner and later rescued Davros in the same way. But what effect on the timeline would this have had. Neither the covert actions of Davros nor the Cult of Skaro had any lasting effect on the world after the Time War. However centuries of secret rule by the Emperor Dalek in the 200th century must surely have had some major effect that will change history once eradicated. It all depends how the series progresses.

        Of course if some Daleks survived the Moment they might have more easily survived their own apparent mutual destruction? If so these Dalek would have survived to act out the events in the Dalek Wars of the 55th and 76th centuries (Dalek Empire I and II). In fact the 8th Season revealed this to be just the case. We saw a Dalek fleet attack Trenzalore after the Time War around 5400 AD, so there was a significant survival of Daleks (though one Dalek can produce over ten thousand in a decade). But this was destroyed. However the next tale describes a vast Dalek War that has conquered much of the Galaxy and is resisted by a Combined Galactic Resistance led by Earth. This must be the 55th century Dalek War which was recounted in Dalek Empire I (2002) and prior to this was only rumoured about. This was very similar though also had a number of difference to the new tale. In the original version an absence of Daleks for centuries ends with their massive reappearance and the subjegation of much of the Galaxy, with a human resistance army barely holding out. This would match the Daleks sudden return after the Time War. But it was a tale from before the Time War was even known about and probably represents a pre Time War history now changed. Daleks obviously escaped Trenzalore too and propogated over the next generation. The original war began in 5425, but given the Doctors lifetime on Trenzalore is now probably at the end of that century with their destruction of the Church and the return after this of the Earth Alliance (though the war might have been raging long before this). An important part of the latest revelation was that Time War Daleks had a brain filter preventing any rare event of an ethical or aesthetic consciousness developing (as seems increasingly the case in this period). At least one Dalek’s filter is shut down causing it to rebel against the Daleks. In Dalek Empire I rebel Daleks also exist, though they enter from another universe. So this basic idea must be part of a fixed point in time. This Dalek War seems to be the current state affairs at the time of writing.

  2. By popular demand, and by way of comparison, here’s a few more Whovian Timelines. At which point a Whovian Game, much like the Holmesian Game is truly required.

    Cybermen Timeline
    The origins of the Cybermen are shrouded in mystery, and the Broadcast history tells us little of it. Unfortunately this has led to many contradictory accounts, legends and myths to be propagated in various comics, novels and audio plays of varying quality. These have been dealt with in many ways, The BBC (embarrassed by it writers lack respect for continuity perhaps) prefers vagueness, with a few landmarks, fans come up with badly thought out ‘histories’ in the main, while Ahistory, a published historical chronology attempts an account in which all these tales are true and different factions of Cybermen evolve in parallel on various worlds. But as already mentioned although Ahistory is the best guide available, it is often over charitable and unreliable, and like any speculative history book cannot be taken as gospel. Some of the anachronistic accounts it accepts can be dismissed as legends and tall tales told of the Cybermen in the the most notorious space bars, while others may be interpretations of a vaguer half forgotten histories. As with the Daleks some of this may be genuinely due to memories from parallel timelines and incursions there from, and we know from a New Saga that at least one race of Cybermen evolved in parallel in an alternative universe. But it is too easy to rely top much on such speculative parallel worlds, and it should be possible to develop a rationally consistent account that includes as many of the authentic accounts as possible.

    As far as the Broadcasts inform us the Type 1 Cybermen were born on Earth’s older twin planet Mondas. This planet was once the mirrored twin of Earth, and most likely in the same orbit but always on the other side of the Sun (others have claimed it was in a different orbit or was part of a double planet system, but this is unlikely). How this happened is best passed over as a fluke. But a ‘Great Disaster’ caused Mondas to be knocked out of its orbit and drift to ‘the edge of space’ before it managed to return. The nature of the ‘Great Disaster’, some say it was an asteroid impact, or the result of some technological error, or even a deliberate attempt to avoid an astronomical collision, only the Cybermen know and they aren’t telling, various historians have their own speculations (perhaps all are true in alternative timelines). How far Mondas drifted is also unknown, ‘the edge of space’ is vague, it implies the boundary of our solar system, so may mean the Kuiper Belt, containing the last minor planetoids, the Heliopause, where the Sun’s dominant influence ends, or the Oort Cloud, the the thick cloud of dust surrounding the Solar System, held only by the weak attraction of the Sun. The journey to the edge of the latter would have taken thousands of years, while the first two would have been reached in a couple of decades, at the natural velocity of an Earth-like planet, but no astronomer saw this, so the former must be the case. One account, (The Silver Turk), states Mondas reached the edge in 1873, at the same time its first Scout ship landed on Earth, putting Mondas out at 1.5 Light Years after a 15,000 year trip, which began around 13,000 BC (close to the Banksian guesstimate of 10,000 BC, though not the absurd 200 Light Years mentioned in the story which is in deep space). Alternatively some have said Mondas wandered for millions of years, including the Doctor, putting the ‘Great Disaster at several million years BC (and facilitating its alternative vast apogee), or even that it was steered throughout the Galaxy like a space ship before returning! But this is almost certainly a fantastical myth that had even reached Time Lord records. If Mondas had been hundreds of Light Years out at its apogee in 1873 no Cybermen could have returned by 1986, let alone the earlier encounters as they do not seem to have had superluminal spacecraft, and even if they did Time Dilation would need to be figured in (there is no evidence of any hyperspatial or wormhole travel either).
    But more damning to this myth is that the Continents of Mondas are modern ones not archaic, so it must have departed in the modern era thousands of years ago not millions, and only reached the Oort Cloud.

    It is not known what the power source that brought Mondas back was, but it eventually arrived back near Earth orbit by late 1986, in just over 100 years (somehow unseen, probably from the far side of the Sun), carrying lots of Cybermen. This gives it a speed of around 1.5% C or 10 million Mph. It is unknown how fast the cyber scout ship bringing the ‘Silver Turk’ was other than it was subluminal (but a guesstimate might put it at very close to light speed, given its mass is only a fraction of that of Mondas, and would not increase significantly till close to C, it thus could have reached Earth in under a couple of years 99% C, although the time dilation effect would slow it by a factor of around seven, making the journey a 9 year one from an Earth perspective, the Mondasian Scout Ship arriving in 1873 would have left Mondas around 1864, perhaps when it achieved standstill at the edge of the Oort Cloud).

    At some stage in their history the Mondasians became zombie-like cyborgs, which enabled them to survive their journey into the absolute zero temperatures of space. The rapidly deteriorating conditions during their drift out of the solar system would have turned their planet into an uninhabitable ice world within just a few years. The Mondasians are said to have survived deep underground in heated bunkers, but even these would have failed them in la few centuries as their resources were consumed. Their conversion would thus have to have been early in their history and from necessity. An alternative theory has it that many Mondasians became cyborgs by choice prior to the ‘Great Disaster’, and these alone survived, along with those they converted (though one published story along this line, Gerry Davis’ Genesis of the Cybermen, has highly advanced humanoid Mondasians, fleeing the conversion and escaping to Earth, possibly seeding Atlantis! Perhaps explaining why humans were uniquely convertible to Cybermen in some stories, given the Cybermen could only convert Mondasians and Humans for centuries, both shared genetic ancestors, making this story an important one). It is perhaps compatible with the inflight conversion of their captive passengers.

    At its point of apogee furthest from Earth, an advanced Cyber scout-ship left Mondas and managed to land undetected on Earth, discovering Mankind and sending reports back to Mondas. The first to arrive landed in 1873, other ships followed in the 1950s, around 35 years prior to Mondas (which suggests three expeditions around a generation apart in 1873, 1913 and 1953, prior to the return of Mondas, only two of which are recorded, is there a Sherlock Holmes vs the Cybermen tale in the ether?).

    There are many problems faced by an attempted Cyber History however, and it is one of the most challenging of all the Whovian Cycles. One isolated issue is that in one tale the Cybermen are listed as boycotting the Time Lords Armageddon Convention in 1609 along with the Daleks (Revenge of the Cybermen). If this really happened in the main timeline, itself open to question, then this either involved the Mondasian Cybermen, still in the Oort Cloud, or the Time Lords convened the meeting in a relative safe zone in Earth’s past, and invited representatives from relevant Time Zones, which seems the most likely scenario.

    Shortly after Mondas spun off into space the declining planetary conditions must have led to all the Mondasians gradually becoming cyborgs. This mostly happened in space. according to the Spare Parts tale, though this technology must have had a prior history. By the time of their apogee they had become almost entirely cybernetic, with only a modified biological brain and major organs, as well as some organic peripheries, left within a robotic body. They had become the Frankenstein’s Monster of the Space Age. There is also some evidence that a skeletal frame remained within the exoskeleton at this stage providing a biological frame. However they were also still very individualized, each with their own names and character. These became known as the Mondasian Cybermen, or Cybermondans, Type 1, who seemed to require the life energies of their home world to be beamed to them for their survival. Cybermen functioned best in the cold temperatures they had adapted to, hence they concentrated their activities on moons or cold planets like Telos, and could function in space with little problem. In many ways they were the embodiment of the coldness of space. The early Mondasians targeted a NASA facility in the Antarctic for their Earth bridgehead, but the main plan was to drain the Earth’s energy for Mondas which had exhausted all its energy resources by this stage. The Doctor of course turns up and helps destroy Mondas via an overload, along with all the Mondasian Cybermen who relied on its transmitted energies.

    The Mondasian Cybermen used large portable weapons, like mini-cyclotrons that produced lethal X-Rays, one of the few things that could penetrate their artificial skin. Lamp-like units on their heads received power from Mondas, as well as served as communication devices when needed, relaying all cyber-neural information between Cybermen when needed. Their chest units were life support their systems. Their brains were primarily organic, with many cybernetic additions and filters.

    Diverse Tales of Origin
    According to the Genesis of the Cybermen, a tale told by Gerry Davis, the Mondasians were an advanced race, split into at least two cultural groups, an Apolline Degan Clan and a Dionysiac Sylvan clan. The two lived in balance until the Degan clan seized control of the world and and began converting its population to Cybermen. This led to a civil war, with disastrous results, one of which was the dislocation of Mondas from its orbit. The surviving Sylvans fled to an Earth still in its Stone Age, and began civilization there. While the Degans gradually became Mondasian Cybermen as Mondas drifted off into space.

    The legend that the Cybermen were the descendants of the Degans is contradicted by the oral tale Spare Parts which is considered more reliable. Here the Mondasians are much like Earth people of 1950s, whose world has come a drift, following their attempt to avoid an asteroid collision and are living in vast underground cities. They develop an advanced cybernetic technology to avoid their fall into environmental and biological death, as Mondas drifts too far from the Sun. Bit by bit they replace themselves with cybernetic parts till they become the Cybermen. The main problem with this is the question of how a 1950s level culture could not only create the Cybermen, but also develop the technology to move a planet in their first place. A common resolution is that the science is not there’s but an adopted or reverse engineered technology from another race.

    Perhaps Mondas also harboured two dominant civilizations a small elite culture of the rival Degans and Sylvans, who had developed advanced first world technology, and a wider second world culture of Mondasians, who were far less advanced and lived in 50s conditions (a third world of more primeval Mondasians may have existed in its wildernesses mentioned in some stories). Technology would filter down under these conditions. The remaining Degans in the Spare Parts scenario, may have already vanished and become the first Cybermen, who convert their fellow Mondasians. But why there should be such a technology gap in the first place is a mystery.

    Other sources say these Mondasians once shared their world with the ‘Lizard Kings’, Mondasian equivalents of the Silurians and Sea Devils, who developed a great civilization that ended around 65 Million BC (Earth Time). The Lizard King civilization lasted for eons until the final destruction of their civilization around 14,000 BC, a thousand years before the ‘Great Disaster ( see The Cybermen comic, 1994).

    This was a vast span of time, that begun around the fall of the Silurian Civilization on Earth, who had maintained their own vast Empire from around 85 – 65 Million BC (corrected dates to K-PG Extinction Event). Their final century the time of the first primates (actually Lemurs, but called ‘apes’ by the Silurians),who hunted by the Silurians as well as genetically engineered. The Silurian term for Lemur, Ape and Ape-Man (our Australopithecus) was the same, given they never saw the latter’s, an error that has led to the end Silurian civilization being dated to just a few million years ago by some, when the first Australopithecus emerged on Earth).

    It was 65 Million years BC when an apparent ‘asteroid’ hit the Earth, and so the Lizard Kings may have been descended from Silurian evacuees. They are are said to have been greatly advanced technologically, in both genetic and cybernetic engineering, controlling bionically enhanced dinosaurs as on land from their earliest epoch, equivalent to the Silurian period on Earth, and genetically engineering Shoggoth-like creatures in the seas tens of millions of years later in a vast history of rising and falling civilizations, far beyond the scope of this study. In its final era, ending perhaps around 14 Million BC, the era of the higher primates, the Lizard Kings had developed genetic problems that led to them becoming cyborgs. They also genetically and bionically altered the early primates, forming a slave class of Cyber-Apes. This was a period of much warfare and strife among them and the rise of dark cults, such as the infamous Yog-Sothothic Religion of Dagon among the Mondasian Sea Devils (or Golgoth as they called him), which paralleled the Cults of Azathoth among the last Silurians on Earth. At the end of this era the Lizard Kings were forced into hibernation by some natural disaster, much as had happened earlier on Earth.

    Their civilization was said to have lasted till 14,000 BC however, which seems a very late date, but might be explained as a significant Lizard King mass awakening and revival of their culture. However by this time the Mondasians had evolved into a primitive civilization that covered the world, and which seems to have overwhelmed the Lizard Kings, who were now a relatively tiny minority of the population, destroying all but a few scattered colonies in isolated regions, which probably went back into hibernation.

    But what does this have to do with the Cybermen? It was said that it was the ancient cybernetic technology of the Lizard Kings that had been retrieved and reverse engineered by the Mondasians, probably in the important revival period, to produce their anachronistic technology (at least among the Degans and to a lesser extent radiated out to other Mondasian cultures). The degree of contact with the ancient technology perhaps explaining the technology gap.

    An ancient Mondasian legend tells of a battle between the earliest Cybermen (Degans?), just prior to the ‘Great Disaster’, and the last hidden colony of the Lizard Kings which must have reactivated in 13,000 BC. Following this battle with the last Lizard Kings, the Mondasian Cybermen experienced great losses, and are said to have re-engineered the surviving remnants of the Lizard King’s Cyber-Apes to create a new army of Cybermen (true or Dalek slur?). The Lizard Kings themselves were eradicated.

    If this wasn’t complex enough, another apparently contradictory legend claims the Cybermen were actually descendents of an earlier race called the Voord rather than the Mondasians (The World Shapers). A digression is needed here. The Voord were an alien cult from the planet Marinus, either indigenous or alien, who had developed an immunity to the Conscience of Marinus, a central supercomputer, that ran the planet from a tower on a glass island in an acid sea, it linked all the planet’s inhabitants into a vast cyber network. But over time it also came to serve a function of censoring any ‘negative thoughts’ in the population via induced guilt states, until the Voord developed technology to block it. The legend involves a quest tale to find the keys to control the computer before the Voord, who want to use it to create a docile population. It also serves as an ethical tale about social engineering. In the end the computer is destroyed killing the Voord leader and society returns to a more natural order (cf The Keys of Marinus). But what has this to do with the Cybermen?

    The answer is some early commentators thought the Voord were ancestors of the Cybermen. There are several possible reasons for this speculation, one superficial reason is that the semi-aquatic Voord are covered in similar plastic-like coverings to the early Cybermen, though they are black rather than silver, and were permanently masked by metallic helmets with strange looped antennae. Many interpreted this as the Voord being part cyborg, whose brains had been technologically altered to block guilt feelings, making them sociopathic, much like the Cybermen, who they slightly resembled. But suspicions were heightened due to the fact that the planet also contained a group of Marinian beings who had been reduced to brains in vats, the Morpho, who were only kept conscious by life support systems, but were able to hypnotically control the other beings around them, much like the Cybermen would with their later mind control technology. Moreover the entire technology of the planet was based on cybernetic AI/Brain interfaces, as well as advanced robots or cyborgs. The story is at least a source of inspiration and was broadcast long before the Cybermen were thought of. But a final straw for some was that this tale replaced another one called The Hidden Planet, about a Counter Earth on the other side of the Sun (identical to the Mondas situation). Although there was no obvious connection between The Hidden Planet and the Marinus story, some felt that Marinus was the in fact regarded as the hidden planet and so was actually Mondas.

    This idea was later consolidated by the legend of The World Shapers, 1987, told by Grant Morrison, where a time acceleration device mutates the Voord into Cybermen. More subtle support comes from another graphic tale, where the Voord enslave a race of Fishmen on the neighbouring planet, Kandalinga (Counter Mars?), just as the Cybermen later battled Mondasian Sea Devils on Mondas millennia later. Thus one school of thought saw the Voord as clearly ancestral to the Cybermen. None of this is supported in the Broadcast canon, nor does it seem compatible with the non-canon Lizard King legend or the standard histories of Cyber evolution.

    It is tempting to dismiss this as a parallel timeline, but one way of incorporating this legend is to assume the aquatic Voord are actually descendents of Mondasian Sea Devils who became Sea-Cyborgs around 14 Million BC, and so although not ancestors of the Cybermen they were pre-cursors to their technology, and may have been incorporated into them at some stage during a revival, much as the Lizard King’s Cyber-Apes were said to have been in 13,000 BC (this would be problematic given the Mondasian exclusivity, but perhaps Mondasian/Marinian genes had been incorporated into the Voord in some way).

    The humanoids in the Marinus story, sometimes called Arbitans, would have been an ancestral race of the Mondasians who later themselves became the Cybermen. They would have evolved from apes genetically engineered around 14 Million BC and so could have developed a high civilization by 12 Million BC, and it seems they had undermined their ecosystem by 10 Million BC, creating acid seas, glass deserts and other degeneration, the likely time of the Keys of Marinus tale. Their civilization may have existed for millennia till they finally died out. Their advanced status would put them into relation to the later Mondasians in the same way the legendary Atlanteans were to our civilization. Their own technology having been partly reverse engineered from the Lizard Kings, with the Voord the latter’s last Cybernetic remnants, who alone survive in the acid seas of the environmentally damaged planet.

    The Arbitans thus fit into a middle era between the decline of the Lizard Kings and the rise of the New Mondasians, and most likely become one of the mediators of the Lizard Kings technology to the later Mondasians.

    The planet revitalizes over about nine million years between the Arbitan decline and rise of the Mondasians who descended from them as well as non-evolved apes (circa 1 Million BC). The former perhaps somehow pass on their technology, though how it survived the aeons of time and how a primitive culture could comprehend it is anyone’s guess. Perhaps they merely preserve key ideas in secret teachings which are not implemented till later, or some secret colony of Arbitans still remained, a kind of Arbitan Shambala. But the main leap was more likely achieved with awakening of Lizard Kings in 14,000 BC. Thus the Marinian Epoch can be slotted neatly in to fill part of the millions of years gap between the fall of the Lizard Kings and the rise of the Mondasians. This is admittedly highly speculative, but the Mondasian chronology is an incredibly vast one with many unknown gaps that have needed filling out (some have argued that civilizations like the Lizard Kings could not have been millions of years old as they appear only 3 or 4 centuries in advance of us in the 20th century, a similar argument is used against the Silurian civilization, however this discounts the likely collapse and regeneration of reptilian civilizations in this period. It is confirmed many times for Earth that the Silurian Civilization died out in the Eocene Age at the latest, and was millions of years old then, though perhaps only ten or twenty million years to be realistic. Its refugees must have reached Mondas after 65 Million BC where they had an even more punctuated history).

    The First Epoch of the Cybermen
    After the destruction of Mondas the Cybermen next turn up in the 21st century in a more cybernetic form (Type 2a and 2b). It seems these are a faction who left Mondas before it returned and have ‘evolved’ further. These launch attacks on Earth’s space colonies triggering the first Cyber War, which results in them retreating to their new home world, Telos, and entering a cryogenic tomb, disappearing from the galaxy for several centuries.

    The sequence of these events is controversial however. The earliest known tale is of Type 2a Cybermen attacking Earth’s Moonbase. This incident, dated to 2070 AD, was a planned incursion on Earth to gather resources and convert mankind into Cybermen. It was to be launched from a bridgehead on the Moon, using the Earth’s Moon Base and weather control technology as a weapon. It was foiled by the second Doctor who they recognize, implying they have met before (causing many to question this was their first encounter as we shall see).

    The Cybermen here use X Ray blasts from their chest units still as well as large mounted X Ray Lasers, called Cyber Cannons, they could also use electrical discharges from their hands to stun and biochemical weapons to soften up a target. In addition they have mind control devices and can hypnotize people with beams from the now reduced lamp on their forehead, that presumably still also acts as a communication device.

    They talk of converting great numbers of humans into Cybermen to make up their limited numbers. They are particularly covert in thwir strategy, which also suggests their numbers are relatively low at this time. Prior to this they seem to have been colonizing more distant planets, including the mysterious Planet 14 (apparently the 14th planet in our solar system), a base from which they operate, as well as planets in other star systems. The leader of the Cybermen on the Moon has a name, Tarn, the last Cyberman to be named, suggesting they are still individualized at this time as were the Mondasians, but losing this ego nature (which seems to put them closer to the Mondasians).

    Another attack on Earth was carried out by Type 2b Cybermen (the first to have teardrop eyes and an inverted chest unit), who attack Space Station W3, ‘The Wheel in Space’, hoping to use it as a bridgehead and radio transmitter from which to guide in a large invasion fleet. These Cybermen seem more numerous and appear to be more advanced, not only in appearance, but also in technology, as for the first time deploying Cybermats to infiltrate the protected areas, activated, like the Cybermen themselves, from a dormant state in Cyber-Cocoons, all guided by a new AI system known as the Cyber-Planner. Their weapon systems remain the same however. Thus many have come to believe this occurred after the Moonbase attack. But this is untenable. During the incident on the Moon the Cybermen were very limited in numbers and resources, yet this isn’t the case when they attack the Wheel. More significantly the humans on the Wheel have never heard of the Cybermen and do not believe aliens exist, while on the Moon they were said to be well known. How this could occur is a mystery, the Mondas event of 1985 was catastrophic and the earlier Invasion attempt in the 1970s was experienced globally. However most of the human race was supposedly sent to sleep by the Cybermen’s hypnotic devices in the latter case, and they only appeared in small numbers in Antarctica in December 1986, in what was otherwise an astronomical incident. Thus it would have been with the power of organizations like UNIT to keep these event secret. However by 2070 this was not the case, defining the 2060s as a period of revelation and openness and perhaps the end of UNIT. The more advanced Cybermen on the Wheel are contrasted by the more primitive spacesuits of the humans compared to those on the Moon, and while other technology and equipment seem advanced these may simply be the cutting edge technology on a uniformed military base, compared to the civilian scientist Moon base. This would seem to indicate that the event on base W3 occur just prior to the attack on the Moonbase, probably around 2050, and not much earlier or later. The Cybermen recognize the Doctor in both events, but the W3 base identification is made by the Cyber-planner which has access to Cyber history records, including those beamed from Mondas in its last days. The fact this would not seem to include records of the second Doctor can be explained either by an earlier encounter or more likely that they were scanning his brain waves not his appearance. The final problem with this chronology is the more advanced Cybermen on W3 than the Moon. The only way to account for this is to evoke the Generation Theory and suggest that the Type 2b Cybermen on the Wheel were elite, special forces, and the invasion fleet was manned by Type 2a Cybermen. Following their defeat only Type 2a Cybermen survived in any significant number, and resources were not sufficient to upgrade to more Type 2b at the time. This is supported by the fact that when the Cyber Tombs were opened on Telos centuries later Type 2a Cybermen emerged rather than type 2b.

    Their primary base after the destruction of Mondas was the icy Telos, as well as Planet 14 on the edge of our Solar System. Some have suggested Planet 14 was Telos (particularly the World Shapers tale), but this does not match the astronomical descriptions of the later, so the former must simply have been a bridgehead or forward base for our Solar System. Telos was probably well over 1.5 Light Years from Sol, the same distance of their apogee from Earth, with Planet 14 on the edge of the Solar System. Telos was also used for long term hibernation in a great cryogenic storage vault (reactivated by beings smart enough to solve its puzzles). Initially it was thought to be an uninhabited planet, but later the weedy Cryons are introduced, who build the refrigeration units, but are almost entirely wiped out by the Cybermen, presumably just to make them seem extra evil, as they seem capable of building freezers themselves.

    When they re-emerge on Telos, in around 2485 according to some, these Cybermen are led by a domed headed Cyber Controller. It is said they were defeated in the first Cyber War, following the First Epoch space incidents, and vanished for ‘500 years’. Though to fit in with a coherent chronology this would have to be simply slightly over 400 years, with some exaggeration added, and the date of their emergence nearer 2470. These Cybermen have similar weapon systems, though their laboratory reveals they have been developing hand held weapons and other new designs. They are led by a larger, dome headed Cyberman, with a visible brain called the Cyber Controller. Oddly he has no chest unit, which means he must be more human than the others. The Cyber-Planner is not present.

    The emerging Cybermen were defeated and resealed in their vaults after this, but would return in more advanced forms later (Type 3 and 4 characterized by their ‘concertina-like headphones’ used for greater sensory ability). It can only be that after their first attempt at awakening failed an escaping Cybermat (shown at the end of the broadcast) later managed to release them in less ideal circumstances. These Cybermen would carry on their research on their weapon systems and upgrade themselves to the Type 3a Cybermen.

    A Deeper Continuity Puzzle
    A further continuity puzzle emerges here, with an Invasion a fifteen years prior to the return of Mondas and a century prior to the Moonbase/W3 incursions, which was carried out by the apparently more advanced Type 3b Cybermen, claiming to be from ‘Planet 14’ where they met the Second Doctor (yet another untold story?)

    How can this be explained? There are three main theories, one involves a branching of Cyberman species, rather than the serial evolution as is often assumed, this will be referred to as the Banksian Thesis, another involves serial evolution but with parallel generations acting alongside each other, as with military hardware today, this is known as the Generational Thesis, the other involves time travel, which we know the Cybermen obtained from the Daleks at least once and used late in their Second Epoch, the Time Travel Thesis.

    The Banksian Thesis suggests that a group of Mondasian Cybermen leave Mondas as it passes the Outer Planets and settle on Planet 14, a planet beyond Pluto, where they become independent of Mondas and more cybernetic. This has to be the case in all theses, but the Banksian Thesis suggests this group, called the Cyber-Faction, evolves rapidly, while another group leaves Planet 14, or Mondas itself, for Deep Space and eventually land on Telos light years away (some conflate Planet 14 and Telos, but this is incompatible with Broadcast history). The two groups then evolve separately with Planet 14 Cybermen becoming the more advanced Type 3b Cybermen, who will invade Earth in the mid 1970s (according to a more accurate dating of the UNIT Era courtesy of Ahistory), forming a more advanced vanguard for slow moving Mondas, whose evolution is stagnant, while the Telosian Cybermen evolve slightly more slowly (creating Type 2 Cybermen) and only return to the Solar System from distant Telos in 2050 (suggesting a journey time of 42 years in Relative Earth Time, or 6 Years for Transit Time at 0.99 Light Speed, by a sevenfold slowing. This would allow news of the destruction of Mondas to reach Telos in 6 years, or around 2003, and a few years of planning. Telos is thus roughly 6 Light Years away from both Earth and Planet 14 and 4.5 Light Years from the apogee of Mondas. Possibly making it orbiting Barnard’s Star in Ophiuchus, the first star suspected of having planets, until funding was denied in 2014).

    But this has enormous problems. The first is the presence of Type 3a Cybermen (Revenge of the Cybermen), who must have evolved on Planet 14 from Type 2a (the chest unit is identical for instance), but with some Type 2b features (such as the tear drop eyes). Thus Planet 14 Cybermen have to evolve from Mondasian Cybermen, through an intermediate form (indicated by the legend of the Junkyard Demon), something like a Type 1b, then via Type 2a into Type 2b, even if we ditch the intermediate form, as a myth or a unique development on Telos, this takes at least three generations and probably four. Some regard Type 3b Cybermen as actually more advanced than Type 3a and later in origin (they remain around in the 29th century, an issue we shall return to later), which would reduce the problem to just two generations. But any close examination of the Type 3a structure, particularly its bulkier appearance and relatively primitive chest unit strongly indicates an early origin, as does its lack of hand held weapons, which seem to begin with Type 3b and continue after. If we take a Cyber Generation to be 20 years then the Type 3b Cybermen emerge on Planet 14 between 20 and 60 years after it is colonized, probably nearer the latter. This leads on to the second problem, as Mondas has to pass Planet 14 quite late in its return. If moving at a constant top speed (and why should it slow before passing Jupiter?), it should reach Planet 14 at the earliest at around the early 1980s, certainly not before. Yet the latest possible time for the Invasion is 1979, and more likely 1975, long before even Mondasian Cybermen arrive on Planet 14. So could the Invasion have been launched from Telos? The problem here is that Type 3 Cybermen then have to evolve through Type 2 Telosian Cybermen, giving something like four generations, or 80 years, they also have to travel to Telos, colonize it and return to the Moon some time after 1873, when Mondas was furthest out and nearest the stars. This in itself would take at least 75 Earth years (given light speed time dilation) and over 90 years for the Cybermen. In total at least 150 years on Earth (light speed dilation time to Telos in suspension, 80 years of develop and evolution on Telos, and light speed dilation time back to the Moon in suspension). Thus they cannot arrive before 2023 in Earth time. Even if moving at a slower speed, say half light speed from Mondas to Telos and Telos to the Moon, in order to avoid the great time dilation, the mission would still take at least 90 years, arriving on the Moon in the 1960s. After building a Moon Base on the Darkside of the Moon, this would just about allow them time to plan the Invasion and contact Tobias Vaughan in 1970. However it is unlikely they would have traveled at 0.5 C on their journey to Telos, as speed would be essential to conserve resources, Telos would have to be sought for rather than simply traveled to, and Earth Time at this stage would not be a factor in the plan. So we should add 30 plus years on to this mission time, assuming they were fortunate to quickly discover Telos. Therefore we have a 120 year plus time span and an arrival on the Moon not before 1993, once again too late. It is true the original tale placed the Invasion in 2000 AD, but this was not the Broadcast date and if adapted would undermine the entire chronology. The Banksian Thesis is thus impossible, in fact even moving the origin from Planet 14 to Telos undermines it and transforms it into a Generational Thesis, in which all the Cybermen evolve on Telos and generations overlap, with the Type 3b and most of Type 3a and Type 2b destroyed in the first Cyber War, leaving only the surviving and by then archaic Type 2a in suspension in 2470. This too being unable to explain the timing of the Invasion.

    These two theories being shown to be impossible we are left with the Time Travel Thesis. However this also seems impossible as the Cybermen never master Time Travel and simply capture one or more Timeships in the mid 26th century, when Cybermen have long passed the Type 3b stage and wouldn’t be sending by then archaic models on an important invasion. I can think of only one final possibility to make this chronology plausible. That is the Type 3b Cybermen arrived secretly on the Moon as late as the early 26th century, but found a well defended Earth and so traveled back in in time to the late 20th century, prior to Mondas arriving, to both be more successful and to save Mondas (regardless of what effect that may have on their own Timeline had it been successful). But the only way that could have occurred would have been via a fortuitous discovery of the necessary technology (akin to the time the Zygons found Time Lord technology in Elizabethan England). One possibility of this is a forgotten Dalek Time Corridor on the dark side of the Moon. It is known that the Daleks built a Time Corridor between the Mid 22nd century and the the late 1970s (precisely 1979) on Earth, but that this was destroyed. It is possible they built an earlier one on the Moon leading to a forward observation point prior to their incursion. This would not likely to have been before 1978, just as ideal for the Invasion, but a drift in the calibration over the centuries may have shifted this to 1970, when Tobias Vaughan was first contacted. This is highly speculative, but seems the only possible explanation. Moreover the Invasion Cybermen have five figures like the later Cybermen (Types 3a and 4), rather than the three fingers of the 21st century Cybermen (Types 2), also the fact that the Cyber-Director of the 1975 Invasion is much more elabourate and complex than the Cyber-Planner of the 2050 W3 encounter confirms this chronology in my view.

    The Generation Thesis, which works better with the First Epoch Cybermen. Here the Type 2b are the most advanced elite and lead the attack on Space Station W3 from a bridgehead on Planet 14, but the earlier Type 2a Cybermen, who later attack the Moonbase, are still the majority on Telos and Planet 14. The period 2050 to 2070 is associated with the First Cyber War, and in this period most of the Type 2b Cybermen are destroyed and the remaining Type 2a retreat, surviving on Telos in frozen suspension. Later Type 2a Cybermen are upgraded to Type 3a, using the plans of various other types. Type 3a Cybermen then return to colonize Planet 14 and eventually evolve into Type 3b, and later still into Type 4 and beyond.

    The Second Epoch of the Cybermen
    The Type 3 Cybermen were very different, characterized by their ‘concertina-like headphones’ and seemingly more advanced design than the Type 2 range. It is to be assumed they have been reactivated on Telos or elsewhere, probably by the escaping Cybermat seen leaving the sealed tomb on Telos around 2470. They have then subsequently upgraded themselves and repopulated their base, perhaps as early as 2480. These are the ‘new race’ of Cybermen promised by the Cyber Controller during the first awakening on Telos. The Cyber Leaders of this third type have black markings, in the manner of the Daleks (though similar Cybermen were recalled as having been on the Moon in 2070). They also have weapons built into their heads, perhaps to offset expectations, though it seems to have been a failed experiment as it is later discontinued. These Type 3a Cybermen turn up at random points in time, including as late as the 29th century (in their Revenge mission). This seems to be due to an automatic cryogenic function on this generation of craft, which are developing Warp Drive for further journeys, which can freeze the crews for centuries. One crew awaken in the 29th century to discover their race extinct and launch a Revenge mission.

    This generation Of Cybermen began the Second Cyber War, sometimes called the Vogan War, which probably lasts up to 2485 when the Vogan glitter gun is invented, exploits the Cybermen’s weakness to gold. Only a few survive this war, most retreating into the Telos Ice Tombs and other vaults dotted around the galaxy. A cruiser containing Type 3a Cybermen will be the last reactivation of the Cybermen in this epoch. Awakening in the 29th century they find their race extinct and attempt to take Revenge on the Vogans.

    A space cruiser full of Type 3a Cybermen was also reactivated earlier in 2503 during the Android Wars in Orion (Sword of Orion), a robot’s rebellion in which the Cybermen tried to take advantage of the conflict. The Telos Vaults were re-activated a year later, and following a failed incursion on Earth, would have begun developing the next generation of Type 3b Cybermen, perfecting the Type 3 design with a new more agile and streamlined version, identified by their more compact chest units. This improved Cyber Race which will appear in great numbers in 2520 and become the new generation of shock troops for the Third Cyber War, armed with additional hand held weapons to add to a classic inbuilt arsenal. This war culminated in an attempted Invasion of Earth in 2525 (projected back in time to the 1970s). An alliance of civilizations form an alliance in 2526, led by the Humans and Draconians, and these decimate the Cybermen at the end of the Third Cyber War in 2530.

    In the final days of the Third Cyber War the surviving Cybermen retreat once more to Telos, where they begin a further upgrading. They emerge again in 2590. These are the Type 4 Cybermen, with a miniaturized chest unit built into armoured shoulder pads and more advances handguns. The dome headed Cyber Controller returns, but in more advanced form, and is supported by Cyber Commanders, who have black piping to show seniority. These new Cybermen appear to be in short supply, as they have returned to covert actions rather than full scale wars, and are busily capturing and converting humans, probably as a result of their diminished resources after the devastating 3rd Cyber War. Most audaciously they try to build a time machine without success. However they succeed in capturing a Time Ship, from two humans who they partial convert to Cybermen, and launch an Attack back in time, sending a small expedition into the London sewers of 1985 as part of a plan to save Mondas from destruction by crashing Halley’s Comet into Earth. They are prevented in this with the help of the double agent Lytton, a former interstellar mercenary for the Daleks, who has been hired by the Cryons to destroy the Cybermen’s Time Ship. The Cyber expedition fails in this attempt and instead are destroyed themselves along with Telos and the Cyber Tombs, apparently ending the Cyber Race forever.

    By the 29th century ‘had not been heard of for centuries’ and it is at the end to this century we hear of a Revenge assault by the last Cybermen. Slightly earlier than this the Cybermen reappeared on Telos where they regrouped and planned their final offensive. It is uncertain where these Cybermen come from, but it seems they have been gathered from the last known Cyber Vaults and number about 15,000 Type 4 Cybermen. While their numbers are massing the Cybermen plan an ambitious mission to return to Earth in 1987, and recover a Time Lord super-weapon that has been hidden there. This will be used to transform the planet into a new Mondas, and convert mankind into Cybermen, allowing the Cyber Fleet to conquer the Galaxy. The entire Fleet is confidently committed to this mission. This naturally however fails due to Time Lord interference and the weapon destroys the entire Cyber Fleet. Left with no chance of conquest the Cybermen mass all there forces into a single remaining Destroyer and head back in time to 2526, where they attempt to destroy the conference that united the force that defeated them in the 3rd Cyber War changing the timeline. That this force is from the future, and not the 26th century, is demonstrated by their knowledge of events in the 29th century. A rival theory places them in the late 25th century who have already traveled into the 29th century to see their future. It is hard to settle this as the two Cyber Factions look similar, although centuries apart, indicating that time travel into the future and accelerated development, had already occurred by the late 26th century. However the chronology makes slightly more sense if these Cybermen are from the 29th century. But whenever their departure time their attack in 2526 fails and their ship crashes backwards in time to 65 Million BC where they destroy the dinosaurs. Ironically this also destroys the Silurian civilization (who we now know coexisted with the Dinosaurs, from Dinosaurs in a Space Ship), who interpret the sudden arrival of the huge ship as an ‘asteroid’. Some of the Silurian refugees will flee to Mondas and create the Lizard King civilization. This was also the end of the Cybermen of the Second Epoch.

    During the early 25th century the Cybermen had been the main threat to the Earth Empire, the Daleks having been defeated in an earlier war. It is not stated where the stolen Time Ship came from, but it was not a Tardis and the only other Time Ships mentioned in this era of the legend belong to the Daleks. This possible identification is supported by the Cryon’s hiring Lytton to destroy it, as he was also a Dalek agent who had worked with their time technology. It is also likely that the humans who it was captured from where also former Dalek agents who had stolen it. A complication here is that Lytton worked for Davros in the second Dalek timeline based in the 46th century in the far future, when the Daleks appear to have only had Time Corridor technology, with which Lytton had traveled back to the 20th century. But one possible explanation is that Davros had some secret experimental craft hidden away and used for secret missions just prior to the Time War, which was fought to prevent the Daleks gaining further time technology. So perhaps the humans who stole the Time Ship came from Davros’ era and travelled back to the 25th century with it before it is intercepted by Cybermen (who then recruit Lytton in the 20th century). Thus the Cybermen’s acquistition of time travel would have been another fall out from the Time War.

    The Cybus Crossover
    The Cybermen that appear in the early New Saga are a cruder form constructed by Cybus Industries on a parallel Earth in an alternative universe. The Cybus Cybermen are fully armoured and more robot-like than the original Mondasian Cybermen, they also are more hive minded. This species is created from converted humans by scientist John Lumac (himself later converted), and takes over the parallel Earth from within rather than as an alien invasion. These also Cybermen lull their victims into a false sense of security by being far less scary. They begin to threaten our Earth in early 21st century when they break through into our universe due to a spatio-temporal anomaly. These Cybermen have weapons built onto their arms like Ice Warrior, they also deliver fatal electric shocks. But following a brief battle with Daleks also brought in by the anamoly, they are cast into oblivion by a Dalek Void Ship.

    Despite this the leading Cyber Controller manages to manipulate the Void dimension and emerges with a force of Cybermen in London in 1851. Converting local humans to Cybermen he raises an invasion army, though running low on resources also creates more primitive animal like Cybershades. This lack of resources forces a Steam Punk aspect on the tale as the Cybermen make do with Victorian supplies. The final battle involves a huge Cyberking robot that actually consists of a Transformer-like Cybership. This invasion is predictably defeated. The Cybus Cybermen break through one more time in the 21st century, but are finally destroyed in our universe. In time they would also be defeated in the parallel universe as well by resistance fighters.

    The Third Epoch : The Return of the Cybermen
    In the 52nd Century the Mondasian Cybermen mysteriously return with reports of a 12th Cyber Legion battling humans in Deep Space (presumably there are also 11 other legions). Strangely they have all the characteristics and technology of the original Cybermen but look more like armoured Cybus Cybermen. One explanation given for this is that the Mondasians have captured a Cybus Legion and adapted its technology for use in their latest regeneration. This leads to a new Cyber War as the Cyber Legions swarm into the Earth Empire. The humans eventually win this Cyber War but only by destroying an entire star system containing the massed Cyber Force. Standard policy after this becomes to destroy any planet the Cybermen are found on.

    The armoured Mondasians, Type 5, makes sense as an evolution, given the advancement of Anti-Cyber weapons in the 29th century, but this also makes them less stealthy and even more hive-minded than the earlier Cybermen. Their fear factor is also greatly reduced relative to their old selves. How they survived and where they have been for two thousand years is not stated. The most likely explanation is that Cybermen sent several small expeditions into other Galaxies as their space technology increased in the 29th century, particularly due to their basic experiments in Time Travel. These eventually linked up after discovering the fate of their fellow Cybermen and formed a small regenerated Cyber Force. They seem to have later gained access to large numbers of Cybus shells and converted these into new Cyberman, as well as adapting their technology for themselves. Thus creating several legions to reconquer our Galaxy. This fails and they are once again destroyed. The Cyberships of this period also seem to have time travel capacity as several crashed ships turn up in various periods of time there after.

    A thousand years later the last Cybermen were thought long dead and gone but then, around 6000 AD, they return in a new improved form inaugurating the Forth Epoch of the Cybermen. This is led by the Type 5 Cybermen, a hybrid between the Cybus design and an advanced Mondasian Cyberman, apparently more intelligently designed and combining the best of both designs. They have also been upgraded with new abilities, such as the ability to instantly reconfigure and adapt to any attack and an ability to move at very high speed. They are more individualized again but can tune in to a collective network mind called the Cyberiad. Their Cybermats have become Cybermites and their Director can take on humanoid form. The surviving Cyber War, appear to have utilized a reserve Cyber Tomb on a distant planet, adapted to automatically upgrade them as they hibernated under the direction of the Cyber Director. In the period after their awakening after this they must have been capturing and converting hundreds of thousands of humans, they have had long enough. Despite this gradualism they are defeated again. Although a Cybermite is seen escaping and sending out its signals, suggesting other vaults were also converted. This is where the current series leaves us.


    I think this gives us the best possible chronology to take into account all the current facts in a coherent way, though this too is open to correction.

    • The Whovian Martian Chronicles.
      Mars features a lot in the series and deserves a Timeline of its own. However once again there are many contrary accounts in the non-canon media, fortunately it is not hard to select coherent scenarios from this.

      Mars was first visited around 12 million BC by the Fendahl, a powerful Gestalt organism, probably related to the Great Old Ones, that the Time Lords tried and failed to lock in a time loop. The Fendahl is said to have destroyed all life on Mars (Image of the Fendahl). This was later documented by Martian archeologists as ‘The Great Death’.

      Gandoran Mars, 6 Million BC
      According to the tale Lords of the Red Planet, in 6 million BC Mars was inhabited by the reptilian Gandorans (named after their capital city Gandor), the Martian equivalent of Earth’s Silurians, or the ‘Lizard Kings’ of Mondas, all of whom had developed an advance technology which included genetic engineering, cybernetics and a trade mark sonic weaponry. They were also said to be a dying race, a remnant of their former selves, living in shelters beneath their few remaining cities. Why this happened is unstated, but is later suggested to be due to the ancient destruction by the Fendahl. The Gandorans were known to have needed a ‘life drink’ to survive the hostile conditions on Mars. Despite this they became the first great civilization on the Red Planet.

      How this could have happened just a few million years after the extinction event is uncertain, but it is possible that Mars was repopulated by one of the Silurian Space Arks that left Earth around 65 Million BC, one of which could have returned to the Solar System at this time. Most likely their source was the more anatomically evolved and high tech Cimbrian Eocenes from 65 Million BC, who had built the Space Arks, rather than the older, more psychic Wenleyite Eocenes, of around 80 Million BC, who predominantly burrowed deeper into the Earth to hibernate in a number of nests, along with some of their Cimbrian cousins. The Gandorans had no psychic abilities comparable to the Wenleyite Silurians, thus excluding them as near ancestors. Though it is also possible a third species was involved as the Gandorans seem larger than the diminutive Cimbrianns, or perhaps some hybrid species born on the Arks. There is also no mention of the equally ancient Aquatic Eocenes on Mars, unlike on Mondas where there was a parallel evolution to Earth, which also indicates a re-population via a single species. The decaying state of Mars is not explained, though is thought to be the legacy of the Fendahl. It may be that the Gandorans had actively terraformed Mars and that this was later failing (an ongoing situation on the planet).

      First Epoch : The Rise of the Ice Warriors
      It was in this period that the ‘Saurian Evolutionaries’, were engineered by the Gandoran scientist Quendril, from animals called Saurians, their primitive, ancestral cousins (brought from the Arks?), to be a race of augmented slaves and miners in the ice caverns of Mars (Lords of the Red Planet). There are shades of the legends of ‘The Planet of the Apes’ here, given a reptilian spin! They were genetically designed for great resilience and strength, and to be able to survive the coldest temperatures of the ice mines of Mars (a legacy of which was their ability to survive being frozen in ice for long periods, and being ideal subjects for cryogenics, but also their weakness to great heat, which caused their organic degeneration). This aspect of genetic engineering presumably explains why some Ice Warriors had pincer claws instead of fingers, in a miner vs slave dichotomy (though other theories suggest some hybridization with fingered species took place later on). These beings were both male and female (the latter taking a slave role) and must have had the appearance of Ice Warriors sans armour. They were few in number, perhaps 10% of the Martian population.

      The Gandorans were originally a peace loving people. But Zaadur, the first Martian tyrant, raised an army from these genetically engineered Saurians, modified to be more aggressive, and her scientists developed a symbiotic bio-cybernetic armour for them, greatly increasing their strength, with in built sonic weapons. Zaadur used these to seize power and declared herself ruler of Mars. These creatures were the ancestors of the Ice Warriors, not much different from their later form, and the legends say were led by Aslor and Risor, the first Ice Warriors to evolve sentient minds. When Zaadur was overthrown almost all of these warriors were destroyed in their nests in the Martian ice mines, where many of these evolved Saurians had slaved for generations. Not all were accounted for however. There is a tale that these were known in their own time as Ice Warriors (despite this being a term apparently coined on Earth in the future) because the Doctor having met them in the future called them this at their point of origin, and the name took, a curious time loop.

      Centuries later the Ice Warriors would rise again and launch constant raids against Gandor from the deep, disused mines. These seem to have been the descendents of a handful of survivors who had hidden in the deepest caverns of Mars and now numbered in their thousands (presumably after mating with captured female Saurians or hatched from retrieved warrior eggs). The Gandorans were much weaker in this period and on the brink of collapse.

      While still relatively primitive at this stage they were regarded as a cunning and piratical race. They were not as advanced as the later Ice Warriors but their leaders had preserved the bio-cybernetic battle armour and personal weaponry of their ancestors, and may have been regarded as having supernatural powers by their simpler followers (though Ice Warriors could live up to 300 years so these may have been the original survivors in their final years, perhaps extended by regular hibernation). Only these elite Ice Warriors would have retained this advanced technology, most others fought with captured Gandoran technology, or even simple ‘ice axes’, and some wore a basic battle armour, modeled on their elite leaders (perhaps similar to that of the later Ice Lords). Their cultural development was thus similar to our Dark Ages. They were kept at bay ruthlessly by the Gandorans who had retained much of their former technology (or ‘black magic’ according to most Ice Warriors). Many Ice Warrior nests were bombed out of existence. This would all change however.

      The Second Ice Warrior Epoch : 5 Million BC
      Almost a million years later, contemporary with our Pliocene era, the Ice Warriors had developed their own advanced civilization, and become the dominant life-form on the planet, the Gandorans having declined to a few scattered colonies which were frequently hunted down by bands of Ice Warriors. A million years is a long time to take to get to this level, so perhaps some disaster decimated the Ice Warriors a long time before this, probably an attempted genocidal counter attack from the Gandorans, from which they only recovered a few thousand years prior to this period (perhaps utilizing Gandoran cryogenics to preserve themselves), further emphasizing their resilience. Ice Lords have emerged in this period as the culture became increasingly hierarchical.

      This was the era of the tales of strife between the first Ice Lords, Arakssor, a traditionalist, warlike ruler who wanted to eliminate the last few impoverished Gandoran communities, and Geldar, a progressive ruler who wanted an honorable peaceful civilization (Frozen Time). Arakssor lost a civil war and was exiled with his bodyguards, imprisoned in an ice prison in Earth’s Antarctic. Much later in 2012 he was awakened and caused some local trouble for humans there, until the latter Ice Warriors were called to recapture him and his band of cohorts).

      The Ice Warriors only had short distance interplanetary rocket ships in this period, but seem to have universally regained versions of much of their former weapons technology, such as their famed Sonic Canons, as well as their bio-cybernetic armour. Much of this seems beyond their supposed technology of the period, but was perhaps achieved by reverse engineering their ancestral relics and captured Gandoran technology. Despite this their cultural evolution has only taken them to a Medieval level. It was also a period in which they developed a complex system of rituals (Descendance).

      This initial Ice Warrior civilization lasted millennia and achieved a form of interplanetary space travel using electromagnetic rockets, armed with lasers, as well as developing their sonic weaponry into larger cannons. They were thus able to colonize much of the Solar System. The legends describe 12,000 years of a peaceful, honour based civilization, quite similar to a Zen-like, Samurai culture. It seems to have been led by an elite class, possibly directly descended form the original Ice Warriors of a million years ago, with a royal caste, may have claimed descent from Aslor himself. The progressive Geldarian ethos was dominant, but small Arakssorian sects were also present. It also possibly established contact with Mondas at this point (where the last remnants of the Marinian Culture may have still existed). This Geldarian pacifistic culture reached its peak under their great magistrate Isskar (The Judgement of Isskar)

      However by the end of this era the protective Martian atmosphere was badly damaged, as Mars artificial ecosystem began to collapse, and its depleted atmosphere was now letting in harmful radiation. The Ice Warriors could tolerate this at first, but it seems to have killed the last remnants of the Gandorans. Even the Ice Warriors eventually decided to retreat beneath the surface again.
      The increasing scarcity of resources led to an Arakssorian revival and the return of a warlike culture.

      Marshal Izdaal realized that the radiation problem had reached a level where even the subterranean Ice Warriors could not survive. He demonstrated this by fatally exploring the surface world and experiencing the ‘Red Dawn’ that killed him. Izdaal was considered a great martyr and was buried on Mars at its north pole, along with an entire Ice Warrior legion in suspended animation under Ice Lord Zzaal and his personal aide Ssast. In the 21st century a human mission to Mars would awaken them, along with their troops under commanders Sskann, Zizmar and Razzbur (Red Dawn). This lead to a brief skirmish, but was not the first encounter between humans and Ice Warriors however (see below).

      Ice Lord Slaadek had led the evacuation of most of the Ice Warriors to their Moon Deimos where they would frozen into suspended animation until the conditions on Mars improved (Deimos).

      This strategy of going into deep freeze whenever there was an apparently unsurvivable crisis became a characteristic trait of the Ice Warriors and may have earned them their name (they actually only referred to themselves by the Martian word for ‘The Warriors’, at least under Arakssorian influence, or more often simply as the Martians). Human accounts say the name was coined by the first man to find them entombed in ice, but this was much later in the 31st century, and may have not been an original thought. It is also said the Doctor coined their name by taking the 31st century term to all points in their history where it was adopted.

      The Secret Science of Cryogenics
      How the science of cryogenics was inherited is a mystery. It is possible that the first technological means of cryogenic suspension was developed by the ancient Cytherian Venusians, Lemur-like humanoids, who according to one tale (Voyage to Venus) experienced an ecological catastrophe three billion years earlier and applied a similar solution (though not before they had taught the Doctor Venusian Karate!). They would not be awoken till billions of years later when Earth colonists terraformed Venus in the 30th century. They were replaced by evolved octopoid Venusians, who could survive on Venus a little longer (Venusian Lullaby). It was said that some of these Venusians later chose to migrate into space when Venusian conditions became unbearable, becoming the ‘Rocketeers’, and several made their way to other planets in our Solar System where they established colonies, particular on Earth. Though these too eventually choose Venusian cryogenic suspension to preserve themselves.

      The Silurians also famously deployed technology for suspended animation during their crisis, perhaps originally, but maybe suggesting that there were Venusians active on Earth millions of years ago who passed on this ancient technology, and perhaps even on Mondas too. The fate of the last Lizard Kings there is uncertain, but it is possible they did the same, which may have also later influenced also Cyberman strategy, who inherited the technology (a rival myth attributes this to the Cryons, but that may be only as engineers).

      The Ice Warriors presumably learnt Cryogenics from the Gandorans who had inherited it from their presumed Silurian ancestors, in a similar manner to their inheritance of sonic weapons.

      Continuity Issues
      At this point we seem to face a serious continuity problem in the narrative, as some tales describe Mars as becoming uninhabitable only at a much later date, at most just a few thousand years before the 21st century, and in one account merely ‘many centuries’ before. A date of around 1000 BC seems popular in the various accounts.
      I suggest the only way to account for this, as both chronologies have a weight of several tales behind them, is to assume the initial degeneration of Mars was curtailed perhaps by natural regeneration over millions of years, or artificially ‘areoformed’ somehow and temporally restored (areoforming was to become a favoured technology of the Ice Warriors when they attempted invasions of planets such as Earth, so this technology must have been used in the past). The problem with this idea is that all the Ice Warriors went into hibernation, mostly on Deimos, though several thousand slept in subterranean nests on Mars. Who, if anyone, areoformed the planet is thus a mystery. But it seems to have led to a Second Epoch for the Ice Warriors, when they awoke into a temporarily revived planet.

      Third Epoch : Fungoid Empire and Aftermath, 59,000 BC – 33,000 BC
      According to at least one tale their earliest active presence on Mars in this Second Epoch was in 59,000 BC, when they become the subjects of the Gubbage Cone Empire. These were the same Fungoid beings who ended up as degenerate living mushrooms on Mechanus around the 31st century (The Chase). In 60,000 BC however the Gubbage Cones had forged a great empire that would become one of the biggest ever known, rivaled only by that of the Rutan Host, which was also expanding its territory then (The Crystal Bucephalus). Some say it was short lived, but this is relative, it may well have lasted for for millennia. In 59,000 BC they are recorded on Mars, though not on Earth or Mondas, whose populations were both then still composed of primitive tribes. This suggests Mars was an empty planet at the time and a useful base of operations in the Solar System. It is thus tempting to conclude it was in fact the Gubbage Cones who first temporarily areoformed Mars with their spores, making it also hospitable for the last Ice Warriors, who would have awoken from their Martian vaults as their sensors detected the change. The effect may have been a local one that was not detected on Deimos however, explaining why Ice Warriors there remained in hibernation, and further supporting an areoformation rather than natural regeneration (which had taken much longer in a similar situation on Mondas).

      The Ice Warriors would became the Fungoids favourite auxiliary troops, along with the Exo III androids (whose descendents were better known in the Star Trek universe) and the ancient ancestors of the Ogrons. They would have been encouraged to breed in great numbers to supply troops for the Empire (Ogron Ice Warrior hybridization may have been attempted, explaining why some Ice Warriors have tufts of hair, and even their later fingers).

      It was most likely in this time that the ‘Flood’ arrived on Mars, a zombifying sentient virus which could both occupy and manipulate the macro-molecular structure of water. Arriving on an ice comet that crashed into the Northern Sea of Mars, it would have been devastating to the Cones who were 90% water. The Ice Warriors were probably also badly affected due to their high water content. The virus was later sealed in an estuary and frozen into a glacier, probably by the Ice Warriors themselves at some cost (where it remained for millennia before being released by a human colonists).

      It can be speculated that the Flood was a sentient biological weapon deployed by the Fungoids enemies in their primary military colony. The main suspects being the Rutans whose Empire was expanding in the Sol sector at this time as part of its growing war with the Sontarans on the other side of the galaxy. The Rutans were a silicon based aquatic life form known to develop sentient bio-weapons.

      It is unknown when the Gubbage Cones left from Mars, they probably wiped out by the Flood, but according to legend when they departed Mars began to prosper again under the Ice Warriors following a period of chaos.

      The Post-Fungoid history is a true dark era as nothing much is known about it, when it began or when it ended. There may have been a brief Rutan occupation. But the midpoint date of 33,000 BC has been arbitrarily chosen as it end point.

      Fourth Epoch : The Primal Wars, 33000 BC? – 8000 BC
      After a period of chaos Mars would become a feudal society with a vigorous warrior culture, although one with an advanced technology that made their internecine rivalries even more dangerous. As their technology advanced over successive millennia they perfected the technology, such as the Sonic Disruptor, and most importantly their advanced micro-biological and areoforming technology, probably inherited from the Fungoids, in their attempt to maintain their modified Martian environment. This was a period of much strife that ended with a call for peace. It was said that at the end of this era they also used a fungus for psychedelic purposes, and later briefly created an pacifist sect called the Cult of Oras in the Osiran era c 5000 BC.

      The Third Epoch reached its peak around 12,000 BC (they must have seen Mondas drift by just prior). It has to be noted that the gap between the the end of the Cone Empire and this Golden Age of 12,000 BC is rather long, even for a reptoid race known for their longevity and unique perception of time (the average Ice Warrior lived for 300 years). It thus is likely that the Ice Warriors were also badly effecting by the Flood and took several millennia to recover their civilization. It was perhaps at this point that different Nations or Clans emerged in the Martian regions, descended from the camps of the original survivors. The Martians seem to be the Phoenix race of the Solar System, with extraordinary resilience programmed into their genes. But still a lot of history will have occurred by 12,000 BC.

      This was probably also the time that the Ice Warrior hero Varga crashed his scout ship on Earth during an expedition and was frozen in a glacier (The Ice Warriors). Only to be awakened in the 34th century during Earth’s second glacial period (along with his brothers Zondal, Rintar and Isbur and the legendary Tenssor clan warrior Turoc, whose clan name was Martian for ‘great helmet’).

      Ice Warrior society was divided into various clans from an early period, who were subdivided into large families, each with their own nest (though their joint communities and bases are also referred to as nests). This early history would also be the era of the legendary Primal Wars when clan fought clan. These wars lasted centuries, perhaps millennia, which may also explain their slow development, and further entrenched them into their warrior culture. It was also the time of the Riis-utt-Ssethiss, a secret assassination squad which served the highest bidder. The conflict culminated with a global war which decimated the Ice Warriors, and may have been nuclear.

      During these long wars, and subsequent periods of stability, the Tharseesian Caste from the mountains became the dominant clan (a heavyweight biomorph typified by Skaldak), while another powerful early clan, the Argyre clan, came from the southern hills, and tended to have bulkier armour. Other important clans were the valley dwelling Thaumasian clan (classic Ice Warriors), the Erythraeum clan of the red plains (perhaps the black eyed Ice Warriors), and the Tenssor clan of the northern hills (with their enormous heads).

      The social organization of the Ice Warriors was very hierarchical and originally led by a monarch called the Supreme Lord, who ruled a population of over 40 million, under whom where the eight Grand Marshals of each clan of around five million, identified by jeweled helmets and cloaks, and under them the ten cloaked Marshals of each great family (about a half a million strong), along with several Ice Lords (perhaps another ten governing 25,000 Ice Warriors and their consorts).

      All of these aristocratic leaders wore distinctive lighter armour and domed helmets. The nobility were often accompanied by a personal guardian and aide, who all seemed to have names beginning with a double S throughout their history, perhaps indicating they were of a special clan. Higher ranking Ice Warriors were called Commanders (each Ice Lord may have had up to four including his aide, given earlier patterns). The Ice Lords and their Commanders probably had Legions of around five thousand each (maybe divided like the Roman Army, under the Martian division of eight, into ten Cohorts of around five hundred warriors, in eight sixty four man Units, each with eight Squads of eight Ice Warriors, all under their division leaders).

      Ice Warriors ranged in height from 6ft to 7ft, with many around 6 foot 6, some may have been even taller than 7ft, Grand Marshall Skaldek was certainly well over 7ft tall. But rank does not seem to correspond to height, it may simply be a factor of clan origin, mountain dwelling Ice Warriors seem larger than valley dwelling ones, or even age, three hundred year old Ice Warriors being taller in some accounts (unpublished Ssarn Saga by author) and younger ones similar in size to humans (Peladon Sagas).

      Fifth Epoch : The Osirian Era, 8000 BC – 4000 BC
      The years following 12,000 BC are little known, but at the end of this period in 5000 BC, long after the Primal Wars had ended, possibly with a global nuclear war in 8000 BC, the Osirans arrived on Mars via their space-time tunnels, powerful alien rivals of the Time Lords, who the Ice Warriors, as well as the ancestors of the Egyptians on Earth, regarded as gods due to their advanced technology and psychic ability (Pyramids of Mars). The surviving Ice Warriors still recovering from a nuclear war millennia earlier, become their disciples and servants for many centuries. Loyal Ice Warriors were granted extend life by the Osirans, and those that were killed were mummified. It was the latter who inspired the forms of the Osiran service robots, to unnerve the superstitious Ice Warriors.

      In this era Sutekh was imprisoned in a Martian Pyramid by his brother Oras (only to briefly escape to Earth in 1911 and reek havoc). The Osirans had departed by 4000 BC, but most of the Ice Warriors remained devotees of Oras long after, while many also worshiped Sutekh, and some even took part in rites to the Great Old Ones, who had been on Mars billions of years earlier and still lingered in its remote wildernesses. It may have been via the Osirans that the Ice Warriors developed their most advance technology, such as their Chameleon camouflage devices and perfect tactical holograms, as well as the brain washing ‘mind-rack’.

      Many millennia on, when the Ice Warriors would emerge from hibernation a second time, much of the abandoned Osiran technology was a matter of legend, including the ‘Ssethis Machine’, said to be able to manipulate stars and make them go Nova. This device was said to be hidden in one of the ancient Pyramids of Mars. According to one popular account, in the mid 22nd century the Ice Warriors would search for this legendary device and promise to hand it over to the invading Daleks on Earth in exchange for their autonomy (The God Engine). The plan was of course scuppered by the Doctor.

      Sixth Epoch : ‘Golden Age’, 4000 BC – 1000 BC
      Following the revival of Mars by the Osirians and their departure a New Age began. By 3100 BC an Ice Warrior interplanetary empire had reached a new height and with a new Warp Drive technology was beginning to extend beyond the Solar System, skirmishing with Sontarans, who called them the ‘Ice Giants’, and had then pushed the Rutans from this region of the Galaxy, but not yet entered the Solar System. Even the Babylonian kingdom on Earth was in contact with the Ice Warriors. One of the greatest achievements in this period was the creation of the artificial moon Phobos, which would later become the ice tomb of a million Tharsesians and other elite Ice Warriors in 1000 BC when the artificial Martian ecosystem collapsed for the final time. However in 3100 BC it had been the most important military headquarters of the Ice Warrior empire and home of the Nix Tharsis Fleet. At on point it may have hosted a religious cult as the legends tell of the Phobos Heresy. This was vanquished by the greatest Ice Warrior war hero of their lore, Grand Marshal Skaldak, sovereign of the Tharseesian Caste and commander of Nix Tharsis Fleet. He would later unify Mars under its first central monarchy. Skaldek also created the Ice Vaults of Ceres in the Asteroid Belt, to which the last Ice Warriors of this era would retire (with the exception of the Argyre Clan), only to emerge in the 33rd century. He himself crashed into the Earth’s Arctic Ocean in 3000 BC and was presumed dead. But in the 1980s was found by a Russian submarine and returned to Mars (Cold War).

      In 1000 BC, with the collapse of the artificial Martian ecosystem, a final Ice Warrior Civil War broke out, initiated by the dictator Marshall Sezhyr. He is defeated and all his followers are executed. After this Ice Lord Hhesh leads seven Ice Warriors on an expedition to Earth and finds it uninhabitable for Martians. He later vanished, but was found in a block of ice on Earth in 1946 (Thin Ice). The Martians decide to retreat to hibernation vaults in the Asteroid Belt at this point.

      From this period all the Ice Warriors were in cryogenic suspension either on Mars itself (mainly in nests in the Argyre hills and Chasma Borealis) or in the vaults of Deimos, Phobos and Ceres. Most had departed for Phobos and Ceres and it seems only the Argyre clan stayed on Mars, before descending into their catacombs beneath the hills (The Dying Days). Why is uncertain, were they simply defiant, or did they have some traditionalist connection with the planet, or were they excluded from Ceres, was there an Ice Warrior form of elitism involved?

      Seventh Epoch : 20th century to 33rd century
      Their first reawakening in modern times is uncertain. Mars was certainly active when Grand Marshal Skaldek was rescued in the 1980s. The Ice Warriors were also said to be present at the Armageddon Convention in 1609, but we have already established this was a probably a time travel event hosted by the Time Lords and those present were not from that time period (it would not have been possible for either the Cybermen or the Ice Warriors to have existed at this period).

      The God Engine saga describes a Martian City devastated in the 17th century by the Sleeping Disease, yet the Ice Warriors were in hibernation then according to all other accounts, and no revivals are described in that tale. The same saga also gives a false account of the founding of New Mars. It thus must be reluctantly concluded that this saga is corrupted by false myths about Ice Warrior history and must be dismissed as a reliable account of the Ice Warriors revival.

      One possible revival occurred sometime in the 1930s when some of the hibernation units of the Argyre Clan may have malfunctioned and re-awoken some of the Ice Warriors there, but they do not seem to have stayed on Mars (they may have sent scout ships to Arkham on Earth though). One tale describes Arakssor briefly awakening in 1929, unable to contact any fellow Martians (Frozen Time). Another account tells of Ice Warriors on Earth in 1967, but these seem to have been led by Ice Lord Hhesh (from Mars 1000 BC) who thawed from a block of ice in 1946, along with seven other Ice Warriors. In 1946 Mars was found to be an uncontactable dead planet. They form a secret cult which was eliminated in the 1960s.

      The main revival came from the nests of the Argyre Clan on Mars being active in the middle of the 20th century (perhaps awoken after another malfunction in their hibernation units). These latter Ice Warriors were found by an expedition from the UK in 1977, who were all killed, and the mission had to be rescued. These events were classified by the British Establishment.

      Mars was slowly recolonized from these Argyre nests at first, but proved to be inhospitable and the new nests struggled to survive. After the return of Skaldak to Phobos in 1983 on a Tharseesian Warp Ship, which was maintained a functional base, the Martians turned their attention to Earth with aim of terraforming it, or ‘areoforming’ as they called it. There is a slight continuity issue here. Phobos must have awoken sometime before Skaldak’s return in 1983. The most likely scenario is that the Argyle Clan sent a signal that awoke it in 1977 after humans reached Mars for the first time. Deimos was left in hibernation however, presumably as it was from a much earlier period than than the Argyle Clan, but so were their contemporaries on Ceres, who may have been considered a reserve force.

      The first attempt occurred in 1997 when Xznaal Grand Marshal of the Argyre clan led the first colonization mission to Earth. Since their discovery by humans some Argyran Ice Warriors had been held in classified research centres on Earth (the Phobos base seems to have been unknown to humans, but may have been closely involved in these events). Xznaal contacted his Earth based clan members and brought more of them to Earth. A pact with elements of Earth’s Establishment was achieved, but soon after a coup was attempted and areoforming planed. This was resisted and in a resulting battle the Argyre clan was defeated and their nests on Mars destroyed by missiles from a Mars orbiter. This halted Martian plans for almost a century.

      The mission to Polar Cap of Mars, that awoke Zzaal and members of his frozen legion, happened sometime around 2005 in Mars’ Chasma Borealis (30 years after the Mars Probe disaster of 1976), but went unnoticed on the Martian Moons and only caused a limited skirmish.

      The next Earth invasion attempt was made by Ice Lord Slaar in 2044 (The Seeds of Death), most likely a disciple of the then aged Skaldak. Since 2040 Mars had been partially recolonized, apparently from Phobos, half a century after Axnaal’s failure and the massacre of his people. Slaar led an attack on Earth’s Moonbase and attempted to teleport seed pods to Earth to Aresform it. At the same time Phobos launched a massive invasion fleet against Earth. This plan was defeated by the Doctor and the invasion fleet was steered into the Sun. It took over a generation for the Martians to recover but they launched a second attack on Earth in 2086. This led to the disastrous Thousand Day War against Earth (2086-2088), under the Eight Point Table, a ruling council of the last eight Grand Marshals. This included Draan, the son of Slaar, who had been adopted by Supreme Marshal Falaxyr, the head of the council. Many Martians were slain in the war and a great many left Mars to in their Warp Ships to become refuges in deep space. Falaxry was captured and imprisoned. Aklaar, the war chief, became the head of the revived pacifist Order of Oras. By 2097 Aklaar had formed a pact with first female Pope on Mars and peace reigned.

      An alternative account has it that these Martians actually came from colonies in deep space rather than Phobos and returned there later. This is supported by the claim of a Martian Warp Ship from deep space was responsible for capturing Arakssor in 2012. How this fits into the chronology is a mystery, as no Martians colonized deep space prior to Skaldak’s reign. Therefore this account maybe a myth. The only possibility for its reality is that it represents early colonies founded by Skaldak that have since prospered in relative isolation, or some of the Gubbage Cone’s Martian auxiliaries of 59,000 BC founded independent colonies in deep space and then developed Warp Ships to return to the Solar System in the 20th century (but this seems unlikely given the Rutans ruthless extermination policy, though the Ogrons did survive it apparently). If so the awakening of the Argyle clan may not have been an accident. Though little is seen of these supposed returnees and if they existed at all they must have been a minority among the awakening Ice Warriors. Skaldak’s association with Phobos seems well established in the canon literature. Perhaps the returnees simply landed in the Argyre hills, then relocated to Phobos with a larger population?

      It was probably during the mid 21st century that an expedition of Ice Warriors encountered Cybermen on Yama-10 and fought with them over Trisilicate deposits, a crystal used in advanced energy device (Death World). Both sides were destroyed. No exact date or location is given in this story, mostly recounted to children in later comics, but the most likely time would around the early 2040s when Phobos was searching for resources for a new invasion of Earth, and Telos was expanding its influence in the outer planetoids. Yama-10 may have been Orcus, our name for the planetoid partner of Pluto (and the tenth planet of our solar system for maps without Mondas). The Cybermen would have called it Planet 10 also when Mondas had shifted to the 15th position beyond Telos. Both Yama and Orcus were gods of death in Earth’s mythology from Indian and Etruscan myth. Ancient India may have had contact with the Osirans and adopted a title of Sutekh for their god.

      In 2157 Falaxry escaped Earth’s custody during the Dalek Invasion and formed a short lived pact with them in exchange for Osiran technology. This collapsed and the Daleks attacked Mars. Most Ice Warriors on Mars seemed to die out at this point though a few went into hibernation again on Phobos and some fled the Sol System in Warp Ships.

      In the mid 23rd century the ancient Deimos Vault was opened during the terraforming of Mars by Earth. Initially Ice Lord Slaadek lead an expedition, with seven other Ice Warriors, where they discovered human colonization and its aborted attempts to terraform Mars. They attempted to hijack this and areoform Mars instead but were soon killed. There are also tales of Ice Warrior interstellar missions in the later 23rd century (Mission to Magnus). It thus seems a greater number of awakened Ice Warriors decided to depart Mars after the death of Slaadek and formed a series of colonies beyond the Solar System.

      In the early 25th century with the completion of the terraforming the Phobos Vault reopened and a large group emerged. But neither of these came to anything as Mars was now occupied and unsuitable, they simply joined their comrades in deep space (exiles from the Thousand Day War, the Dalek Invasion and the Deimos Vault), and by the 26th century the Ice Warriors were mostly space nomads. It was in this period the Daleks briefly occupied Mars during the Dalek Wars (in both timelines). Following this some Ice Warriors served as mercenaries in the Dalek Wars, both for Earth Forces and the Draconians (Star Tigers).

      In the 27th century the last Ice Warrior vault on Ceres in the Asteroid Belt opened swelling the number of Martians. These headed first to the colonized Mars but found it inhospitable due to Earth’s terraforming of the planet in the 23rd-25th centuries and so could only occupy its icy poles shunned by humans. They then sent out scouts to find a new home world to replace Mars and gather their nomadic kindred and settled kindred in deep space. Earth at the time being at the height of its power and not thrilled with the Ice Warriors occupying ‘their colony’, and by the 33rd century they had all left Mars for good.

      Finally the reunited Ice Warriors invaded the planet Halcyon, 90 light years from Earth, renaming it New Mars. Halcyon’s entire population died in its ‘areoformation’ (Resurrection of Mars).

      New Mars was also the name given to the various smaller colonies of Mars, by those early exiles in the Warp Ships who eventually settled down, until the new home world was discovered. This may be the reason some tales date the founding of New Mars (Halcyon) far too early.

      Eighth Epoch : New Mars, 33rd century onwards
      Ice Warriors fought to maintain New Mars from the 33rd century into the 37th century. Primarily against the Draconians, who they defeated (The Cold Blooded War). By the end of the 37th century they had a stable territory and made peace with the Galactic Federation. In the 38th century they became full members of the Federation (The Peladon Sagas).

      As representatives of New Mars in 3885 the delegate Lord Izlys and his guardian Ssorg played a constructive role in the reforms of the Galactic Federation on Peladon. But in 3935 his replacement Lord Azaxys, along with Sskel were members of a traditionalist sect who desired a return to the old culture. With this in mind they became agents of Galaxy 5, under the Embodiment of Gris, who had recently been deposed by his rival the alien warlord Zephon. This plot was foiled by the Doctor.

      However the traditionalists stage a coup in the late 40th century. Grand Marshal Raxlyr overthrows the ruling house of New Mars, with the aide of Lord Axlaar and Sslurn. A New Martian Republic was formed and the royal family exiled. Lord Varnak led a rebel royalist faction to Peladon, but was assassinated by Axlaar. From that time on there were two factions of Ice Warriors, the Republicans on New Mars and the exiled Royalists on Peladon and elsewhere. The Galactic Federation refused to acknowledge the Republic as the legitimate government of New Mars extending the crisis.

      So far this is the extent of the current series, though one off stories describe Ice Warriors of the distant future as both warlike and reformed, so this dichotomy of factions seems to extend indefinitely.

      Mars Map

  3. A few extraterrestrial loose ends….

    The Sontaran Timeline
    Six Million years ago an ancient humanoid race, the Kaveetch of the planet Sontar, were attacked by the Rutan Host, a billion year old hive mind organism from Ruta III on the far rim of the galaxy. The Rutan Host was composed of a collective of semi-autonomous, silicate jelly fish lifeforms, with a partial autonomy, under the Rutan Queen who coordinated them. They were an apparently amphibious race which fed on electricity and discharged it as a weapon or EM force field. They travelled in crystalline energy ships (which also seemed to be able to manipulate the weather), but could live independently in deep space. Technologically advanced and with a genius level intellect the Rutans were masters of genetic engineering, and had the ability to artificially evolve any creature to a moderate sentient level, thus creating many servile species. But their most dangerous ability was autogenetic shapeshifting, which allowed any of them to transform into any lifeform they had sampled, analyzed and dissected. A primary tactic was thus infiltration before colonization, though they were also deadly in battle. Devoted to universal dominance they reproduced by binary division up to once per sun cycle of what ever planet they operated on, while their lifespan was a matter of conjecture and may have been measured in centuries. If one Rutan survived it would produce over a thousand more in ten days and a billion in a generation. Not surprisingly they swept across half the galaxy in just a few centuries.

    Ironically the Kaveetch were also advanced in genetic engineering and in a desperate effort to survive probably after exposing an infiltration created the Sontaran Clones, a species modification designed entirely to counter the Rutans. Engineered to be as physically strong and resilient as biologically possible. They also didn’t need to eat or drink, taking in energy from a cybernetic probic vent in the back of their neck, via a transformer that could tap into any energy source and convert it. It is also likely they were somewhat cybernetically enhanced physically too, certainly many were equipped with a outer exoskeletal battle armour. Their flesh regenerating devices could also heal most light wounds. Psychologically they were programmed to be highly aggressive and intransigent yet obedient to those designated as of higher rank. At the top of a strict hierarchy were the Kaveetch, so the Sontaran clones were not designed to be very bright. The probic vent was their main weakness, however they were considered totally expendable as they were mass cloned in hatcheries where a million could be produced every four minutes. This cloning ability could also be applied to other species. Even with a speed learning training period this out classed the Rutans in reproduction.

    The Ancient Rutan War was mediated by the Pythia of Gallifrey but they failed to defuse it and the resultant war would rage on for six million years until the 12th Millennium. This time scale is pretty absurd when we consider a six thousand millennia war, and so I suspect it was broken into discontinuous eras. An alternative timeline has suggested the war actually began in 50,000 BC and only lasted a mere 60,000 years, which seems more plausible. Yet the Six Million Year War tradition is firmly part of Whovian legend. A likely resolution of this is that there were dozens of Rutan-Sontaran Wars all several thousand years long, with significant gaps between them, of which the last began in 50,000 BC. We know the Rutans were incredibly ancient and given the Sontarans were super clones it would only take the survival of a complete Sontaran genome and a database of the war, for it to continually recycle, even if nearly all the Sontarans were wiped out each time. The next batch would always re-arm and counter-attack and the ‘Eternal War’ of Sontaran culture would continue.

    Technologically they were equipped with the most advanced weapons, as well as teleportation devices, and several fleets of vast spacecraft. Though they also deployed their characteristic spherical scout capsules on lone missions. Sontaran scouts would have been trained to be self sufficient and lethal. Like all officer classes they also deployed hypnotic devices. Strangely these Sontarans were much larger and older in the original histories than the younger dwarf-like 5ft Sontaran troopers of later times. They also wore lighter armour, or spacesuits, than the more heavily armoured dwarf Sontarans. But this could be explained by the simple observation that the smaller but heavily armed Sontarans were obviously developed for mass combat and economical deployment at a time when the Sontarans were loosing the war and were low on resources. While the taller scouts, and the similar commando units, more prominent in the earlier times, represented single combat troops requiring a little more meat and mobility and date to a period when the Sontarans were winning and had plenty of resources (they also seem to have lived longer). Surely this is the case and can’t just be poor continuity or pointless Retcon??

    So far so good. The Sontaran Clones were the perfect counter foil to the Rutan Host, and although the war lasted millions of years it largely kept the Rutans at bay. In fact it kept the Sontarans at bay too, for within a few centuries of the war starting they had overthrown their Kaveetch masters, regarding them as too weak. How they overcame their loyalty programming is unclear, but some internal conflict must have occurred and a greater loyalty to their comrades won out. The Sontarans, dropping the clone suffix, then pledged their loyalty to General Sontar and devoted themselves not just to defeating the Rutans but too war itself and the creation of a Sontaran Empire.

    Their main difference to other martial races like the Ice Warriors was that they were regimented solders rather than semi-autonomous warriors, with all the militaristic pros and cons that entailed.

    Their cloning ability gave them great species longevity but made individual lives relatively worthless. Their war ebbed and flowed, by the 20th century they had driven back the Rutan Host, but its revival in the 21st century began to reverse their fortunes. Earlier they had visited Earth several times, usually in search of Rutans who had been making their own incursions into the Sol System for millennia.

    By the 13th century they had a primitive time travel technology, known as Osmic Projection, a quantum tunneling device based on their teleportation systems, allowing lone travel into the future for short amounts of time, but they could not perfect anything more. Instead they tried to capture Time Lord technology, leading to clashes with Gallifrey. At some stage they attempted to invade Gallifrey itself with the help of the Vardans, a small interplanetary empire of humanoids with the power to transform themselves into energy and penetrate physical barriers (but it is unknown whether they were energy in human form or humanoids who could literally energize themselves). This failed and they later took part in the Armageddon Convention in 1609. The wily Time Lords later recruited them, along with other allied races (including the Rutans!) in an early Time War, alongside the Osirans and the Daemons, against the ‘Mad Mind’, millions of years ago in the Millennium War. They were barred from the last Time War however.

    In the 25th century they were in a stalemate with the Rutan Host in the Magellanic Clouds. At which time they attempted to assassinate the Rutan Queen but failed. Also at this time they are said to have made their Sun orbit their planet, a ridiculous story based more on Sontaran boasting than reality no doubt. But it cannot be proven or disproven as in the mid 26th century the Rutans destroyed Sontar in retaliation!

    In the 41st century the Sontarans were gaining the upper hand again and nearly defeated the Rutans. But in the 52nd century were again losing. By the 11th millennium the war was still raging but was confined by Terran buffer zones to a limited area. Both sides presumably having exhausted themselves.

    Zygon Timeline
    The biomimical, amphibians known as the Zygons have always been characterized by their search for a new homeworld. They were also relatively few in number, making them the classic infiltrator invader type. This means they have no empires or alliances and their entire timeline is a series of failed invasions making it quite short (they seem to like Earth particularly, being active here in the 12th, 16th and 19th centuries, as well as several times in the 20th and 21st centuries, their last known attempt is in the 28th century). Why they were looking for a new world is unknown, the main narrative tells of the destruction of their planet Zygor during a war with the mysterious Xaranti (a horned arachnoid race perhaps descendent from the Racnoss). But another tale says Zygor was destroyed in the Time War of 5000 AD. Perhaps this was a New Zygor (which would seem very unlucky) but may have occurred in the distant past, given the time travelling nature of the war, the two sides in the main narrative may have been involved even in this version.

    Zygon technology was organic, like the Axons their ships were organic and symbiotic with them, though amphibian rather than the Axon’s vegetative variety (as the Axons also had a limited shape-shifting ability it is possible the Zygons reverse engineered a captured Axon ship). The Axon form of shapeshifting seems to have been more illusory however, whereas the Zygon and Rutan form was genetic. The Rutans were able to easily modify their genetics and morphology after studying a subject, while the Zygons seemed to only be able to mirror a subject’s form by some kind of genetic resonance called a body print (the subject had to be kept alive, and was usually restrained, if they died so did the Zygon). It was perhaps inspired by both the Axon and Rutan technologies. Another technology involved their domestication and cybernetic control of giant amphibian creatures.

    The Zygons were regarded as quite gullible and prone to hypnosis in at least one tale, hence given their appearance they were referred to as the ‘suckers’

    A Few Ancient Oddballs

    The Mythological Aliens

    The Daemons of the Planet Daemos were one of the oldest races in the galaxy. Their technology was based on energy matter conversion, projection and strong psychic ability. It was said to be indistinguishable from magic. They were culturally coldly rational and egoistic, but also had a penchant for destroying what they regarded as inferior (a trait that caused Azal to commit suicide in the face of altruism). They operated various evolutionary experiments on Earth from the Cromagnon to the Atlantean period. The Daemons managed to imprison the Chronovore Kronos, an interdimensional time eating being, in a crystal to use its powers. This was given to Atlanteans in 10,000 BC and accounted for their power and destruction. The last Daemon on Earth, the gigantic satyr like Azal, went into hibernation around 2000 BC, only to be awakened in the late 20th century. He boasted that he was the origin of the Devil in human mythology. The enormous alien, horned ‘Beast’ of the Ood Sphere claimed it too was the origin of Satan, and had both psychic ability and the ability to channel energy, leading many to think he was also from Daemos, and perhaps the true last Daemon himself. However as we shall see below there is a more metaphysical explanation of the Beast. It was said that some Daemons modelled themselves on this their god,’the Horned Beast’ however and do this might explain Azal’s identification. One wonders if their horns were real or merely cosmetic in that case.

    The Osirans were somewhat similar to the Daemons but visited Earth thousands of years later around 5000 BC and contacting the ancestors of the Egyptians who took them for animal headed gods. But they were also more human in scale and had a more civilized and technological appearance. Unlike the Daemons, who could somehow produce animated statues, the Osirans were reliant on service robots. On the other hand while the Daemons still used spacecraft, the Osirans used primitive space-time tunnels. And of course given that the Daemons could change size we don’t know what their natural height was. Curiously the rebel Osiran Sutech, imprisoned on Mars till 1911, also claimed to be the original Satan. The Osirans visit Earth much later but that doesn’t imply they are younger, the technological comparison is ambiguous but the Daemons seem more magical and so generally earlier in any joint time stream. Sutekh may have simply revered and identified with the Beast as did Azal.

    The Weeping Angels of Blink are one of the most mysterious beings in the Whoniverse. A ‘quantum locked’ race, they froze to immovable statues when observed, yet were invisible, fast, and deadly when unobserved. Essentially they were beings who operated only in a non-interactive Quantum superstate of all possible static poses, explaining their deadly instantaneous affect, yet all their definable atomic states were in total stasis when measured or observed. This could not be a natural state, therefore must have been engineered as lethal assassins, or ‘avenging angels’ (assuming quantum states can be engineered). They also gained chronivore traits. In short the ultimate intelligent landmines. Their origin is still unknown, but given Azal’s use of the ‘living statue’, Bok, its possible that they may be a Daemon weapon system that has outlasted them.

    Not all ‘mythic aliens’ were this advanced, some were flawed, the cyclopic Jagaroth wiped themselves out in a civil war prior to the emergence of life on Earth (some say brought on by the Great Old Ones). Their last spacecraft allegedly crashing into Earth and spawning that life. However one survivor hurled into the Time Vortex would unwittingly influence human history via random his appearances. He plays a Lucifer type role.

    At the end of human history we meet another cyclopic race, the Monoids, this time with less of a skin problem but really bad haircuts. It is tempting to regard them as in some way de-evolved from the Jagaroth. Nice book ends…

    The Dark Times
    The Time Lords told of an era before their recorded history, prior to 4.6 billion years ago (coincidentally just before the formation of our solar system?) and referred to it as the Dark Times, an era apparently extending back a further 8 billion years to the beginning of our universe. It was so termed not only for the lack of information, but also as a time of chaos in an early unstable universe. However many of the tales from this era may simply be legends and fables woven from partial memories. A reliable timeline is thus difficult.

    According to the Time Lords R-Kam scroll the most dreaded species from this arcane era were the entities known as the Great Old Ones. These were the oldest beings in the universe, in fact they were survivals from a previous universe who escaped into our universe, via a third realm, according to the scroll. They were the most advanced beings in the previous universe who managed to escape into ours by various means. The most powerful managed to merge their consciousness with subjectivity, or functionality, of various fundamental principles of nature as the universe formed, such as Entropy or Chaos (Azathoth), as well as Negentropy or Order (The Elder One), others became energies such as aspects of the Life Force (Shub Niggurath) or Physical Energies (Cthuga etc), Psychic Energies (Hastur), or even the Forces of Space or Time itself (Yog-Sothoth). These all had an influence over their essential vessels, none were evil in the moral sense, but many were forces of destruction and death, which could be interpreted that way.

    It was also written that some had Great Old Ones had bizarre forms at odds with the laws of our universe, often existing across incompatible dimensions, these were insane beings of essences that had forced their way into our universe from outside and generally disrupted it.

    Others took on powerful biological forms of various kinds or simply ‘disembodied’ psychic force (often a combination of the two). The latter kind could also possess other minds, much in the same way it entered our universe. In scientific terms probably through an ability to replicate brain states in other substantial mediums, reproducing themselves in that media and transfering consciousness as information between potentiating media.

    All of these were regarded as gods or demons by early races. Some became their disciples others were their distant offspring.

    The oldest of these creatures was said to be Azathoth, merged into the principle of Cosmic Chaos, who in later eras was worshiped by dark cults of Silurians, as well as fringe Ice Warrior sects in some of the tales. His local avatars were the Beast and Pwccm, as such beings had local manifestations of the whole, sub personalities, just as seas had estuaries, estuaries had rivers and rivers streams. They could also bud off their subparts into new forms as a way of reproduction, offspring who might who might take any of the above forms.

    Yog Sothoth became known as the Great Intelligence, or perhaps spawned it, and Shub Niggurath gave birth to the Nestene Intelligence a plastic lifeform. In addition the Lloigor produced the Animus, Hastur produced Fenric and his own offspring were the Fendahl. Cthulhu and his offspring Dagon were worshipped by the Spawn of Cthulu and the infective aliens the Deep Ones, who probabably once were part of them, as well as by local amphibians such as the Sea Devils. Other monstrocities included the Mandragora Helix, the Flying Polyps and the Great Vampires, as well as their alien disciples or offspring the Racnoss and the Carrionites.

    Not all these ancient beings were destructive, some preserved order, though the chaotic beings were prior to the ordered beings in the universal order. These Great Old Ones and Elder Ones battled as part of the Universal competition of chaos and order. A battle inherited by their offspring and disciples as wars of survival.

    The lesser offspring and alien disciples of these beings included the space faring Spawn of Cthulhu and the Dagon worshiping Deep Ones (who reproduced via viral contagion into the victims host body).

    Other races of Old Ones, such as the colonizing Elder Things and Archons / Yithians (the first space-time travellers), were of later indigenous origin and more biological, but had reached a level of technology that seemed magical and so were often regarded as in the camp of the lesser Great Old Ones. The Yithians, known as the Great Race, could also migratee consciousness between bodies as an exchange, and so may be Great Old One offspring. It should be noted this similar but in a somewhat earlier era than the human Lovecraft legends.

    Most of the beings from the Dark Times were killed or imprisoned in ancient wars but some survived into modern times.

    A later slightly more humanoid race of this lost epoch were the Carrionites, birdlike aliens who could take the form of human crones and had the ability manipulate the universe via the thought forms they produced through ‘lexical engineering’. They instigated a reign of terror, on the side of the Great Old Ones, but were imprisoned in a pocket universe by the Eternals (see below). In 1599 in our era a small group broke free until they could be reconfined. Carrionite technology was apparently adopted by the Daemons and was a major element of their power. It came to be regarded as magic by primitive peoples.

    Another race of imprisoned beings from the late Dark Times were the giant arachnoid aliens known as the Racnoss, who created a vast empire in the late Dark Times and early Gallifreyan period, allied with the Great Old Ones, but were defeated by the early Time Lords and their allies in the Fledgeling Empires. Many Racnoss were sealed in suspended animation within planets, laying dormant for billions of years until disturbed (this happened with horrific effect in the early 21st Century).

    The Time Lords most ancient legends also told of a war with the ‘Giant Vampires’, another apparently a viral offspring of the Great Old Ones, whom they banished from our dimension, only to sometimes break out. but the veracity of these mythic stories is uncertain.

    The most mysterious were the three Gods of Ragnorak, even more powerful beings who simply observed the Universe, until they hurried its destruction and the birth of a new Universe. These are thought to be Great Old Ones of the prior Universe originating from an even older one.

    The Great Intelligence
    This hostile ‘free floating’ intelligence was alleged to be the Great Old One Yog-Sothoth in one later tale (though it seems far less powerful and may simply be a lesser aspect of this immense being). It was said to be one of the few Great Old Ones to survive the Dark Times, but had been apparently driven mad by its aeons of isolation and seemed obsessed with conquering Earth. In between ‘possessing’ various human subjects the Intelligence occupied a floating fog or a weblike substance (possibly identifying the Great Intelligence with the mysterious Nameless Mist, another Great Old One or here perhaps another aspect of Yog-Sothoth). It also manifest as ‘living snow’ on at least one occasion, and could be contained in crystalline control spheres by its servants. The common denominator seems to be crystals. In the later case it often occupied a pyramidal device built from several control spheres in which it could fully manifest. The control spheres were also media through which it manipulated a variety of robots (constructed via its mind controlled subjects). The robots ranged from drones, such as the fake Yetis in Tibet and London, or the spoonheaded Server droids, to more advanced androids/replicants, that it could manifest through more directly. The latter presumably including the mysterious, humanoid Whispermen, who collectively refered to themselves as The Intelligence, which also seemed able to manifest individually through any one of them.

    In the Lovecraft legends Yog-Sothoth controlled the portals between the worlds and so was closely linked to both time and space travel, though this is not mentioned in the Time Lord’s account, only that it had mastered psychic travel through time and space. It was also said to be the foundation of the human soul in HPL originally, but in the Whoniverse it merely represented by psychic energy.

    The Great Intelligence first appeared on Earth in a Tibetan Monastery in the 18th century, possessing the Abbot, but did not threaten the planet from there till the 1930s. Meanwhile it attempted an invasion in London in 1800, implying it has multiple personalities and is a hive mind. It returned in 1968 and again in the 80s and 90s. Most recently it acted through the Whispermen in the early 21st Century. There are no reports of it in the distant future, though it acts very covertly.

    The Nestene Consciousness

    This is generally said to be the son of a Great Old One born on the planet Polymos, where it took the form of a giant cephalopod. The mother was said to have been Shub Niggurath, but given its similarity to the Great Intelligence this was may have been a parent too. It had to unique abilities one was to transmit itself in the form of radio waves and the other was to use plastics as its medium of manifestation in material form. If no suitable astronomical radio receiver was found it would launch its offspring into space in swarms of energy spheres, which would subsequently land as meteors. The Swarm Leaders would hypnotize suitable humans into helping it. The contents of the spheres and/or radio transmissions would be pooled in a Quatermass like tank to form a vast collective organism.

    The organism could manifest through plastic androids called Autons, which it controlled through radio waves, though the most advanced were fairly autonomous. Autons ranged from dronelike dummies to replicas of actual people.

    The Nestene Consciousness first arrived on Earth in 1972, and returned in 1974, 1989, 1999 and 2005. There most recent appearance being in 2013. Available records describe another attempted invasion in the 28th century. They are said to have been early casualties of the Time War of 5000 AD, but elsewhere are described as being attacked on Polymos by the Time Lords in the 101st Century, during which their planet was destroyed and they were sealed in a giant inanimate Auton.

    The Animus

    This was a fungoid being with many tendrils, which bred via budding and generated webbing. It was found on Vortis, around 20,000 AD, and identified as a Lloigor (a lesser Great Old One with mind control powers in the HPL Mythos). The Animus could zombify and control any being wearing gold (for some reason), and did this with the Zarbi insectoid aliens on Vortis.

    In 1868 a much earlier taskforce of Zarbi led by the budded Animus landed in London and tried to take over via the London Underground as the Great Intelligence would 100 years later. There is no evidence the Animus had time travel ability. Another source says it was destroyed in the Last Time War of 5000 AD however.

    A Great Old One called Hastur was imprisoned during the Dark Times. One source claims it had a ‘good’ aspect and an ‘evil’ aspect (as in HPL) but that the ‘evil’ side became dominant. It was a polypodic, transdimensional entity and difficult to contain. It emerged psychically via ‘possession’ and arrived on Earth in Constantinople in the 3rd Century where it ‘possessed’ individuals and beasts. The Arabs sealed it in a special flask. But this was captured by Vikings in the 10th century who released it. Here it manifest via a giant wolf and was called Fenric. Eventually it was sealed in the flask again and buried in Northumberland. However it briefly escaped in the late 20th Century. It had the ability to call on aliens called the Hermivores, with whom it had some relation, and who approximated a combination of zombies and vampires. The Vikings predicted it would be part of the end of the world. Time Lords believed this was a prophecy of its key role in the Last Time War were a mutual destruction would result.


    This was allegedly the extremely powerful offspring of a Great Old One born on the Fifth Planet, before it became the Asteroid Belt. It was a gestalt organism consisting of a core and 12 separate members. Only the central core was intelligent, the members were drones but contained much of its power. All appeared to be polypodic organisms, but the core could shapeshift into more useful forms. It seemed to spread by viral infection with other lifeforms becoming Fendahl. It could also create temporary Fendahl from concreted energy forms. It fed on psychic life force killing its victims in hours. As it generated all twelve members its power grew exponentially and it finally had enough power to wipe out all life on a planet within a few days.

    The Time Lords killed it and destroyed its planet, locking it in a time loop. But the skull of the last Fendahl Core landed on Earth and was able to convert victims into a new Fendahl, which set about producing members from new victims. It first arrived during the Crusades, but returned again when the skull was discovered. This time the Time Lords deployed the Doctor to defeat it. It is unknown which Great Old One fathered it, perhaps Azathoth itself, but Fenric is often supposed, though the Fendahl seems more sane than either of these. It was eventually destroyed in one the Time Wars.

    The notion that the Fendahl was a Great Old One is contended in some sources, but the comparisons are clear, only its parent remains contentious.

    The general form as polypodic entities of these beings, feeding on psychic or lifeforce energy, and capable of ‘possession’ of other beings or substrates, unites them as one similar type. It is true in varying degrees of the Great Intelligence, the Nestene Consciousness, the Animus, Fenric and the Fendahl. The nature of their containment is also very similar, be it pyramidal / control spheres, electromagnetic energy spheres, seed pods, a containment flask or a skull, and defines their family. The general gestalt consciousness of these beings adds enough similarity to regard them as the same genus with their differences defining their species. The Great Intelligence had largely abandoned its original biological form; the Nestenes were still very physical, and polymeric in substance and had a limited psychic connection to carbon based life, though like the Vardans could convert to and from energy for short periods; the Animus was entirely biological but operated on a multichannel psychic level (it also had spidery qualities, as did the Great Intelligence, perhaps indicating Racnoss genes); Fenric had more limited abilities, operating through psychic links and mediators rather than directly, being more displaced dimensionally; while the Fendahl mainly differed in its unique exponential power, with twelve members being equivalent to a thousand others.

    The Guardians
    The first Guardians mentioned in the canon are the Black and White Guardians, who represent Chaos and Order respectively. They are usually regarded as humanoid projections of the Great Old Ones. Thus the Black Guardian would have the same relationship to Azathoth as did Nyarlahotep in Lovecraft. They both sought the Key of Time, a cuboid device with the power to manipulate time on a cosmic scale.

    Later fringe fiction introduced four other Guardians of Time, the Gold Guardian of Life and Death, is easy to concieve of bit how does that relate to time? Is he akin to Fate or personal Time Stream? But then we have the Red Guardian of Justice and the Azure Guardians of Balence. But of what? And how does that relate to time also? Is this some plan of history? But then there is the Crystal Garden of Dreams, attractive as it explained the Celestial Toy Maker. But all of this seems spurious and ill thought out. Perhaps a mystery lies here but I suspect myth does, and I shall be content with two Guardians.

    Eternals and Chronovores
    These must be the oddest creatures in Whoniverse, and as beings who live outside time in six dimensional space, they can have no timeline at all! They also come close to breaking the prime directive of the Whoniverse, a ban on all supernaturalism with a reliance on a rootedness in materialist science. They seem to represent the most advanced and oldest beings in the universe, beings who have transcended physicality and space-time and exist as energy forms in eternity. However this proves to be a trap as they also lose the ability to change and to create. They just parasite on the creativity of ’emphemerals’ or mortal. Many other advanced beings avoided this trap by staying within space-time. Their position does give them great powers and even the Time Lords regarded them as god-like, along with the Guardians whom the Eternals also revered. Their lack of change and creativity is said to be a source of great boredom and a search for stimulation among the Eternals which can sometimes be malign. But they can be recruited to a cause, either by Time Lords or more likely Guardians. However different Eternals deciding to ally with different Guardians out of pure aesthetics as they were totally detached from the actual universe. However they could appear in it in whatever form suited them as well as create whatever technological forms suited them such as spacefaring sailing ships around Earth (stolen from its inhabitants memories). They could manipulate time and space and could also absorb or confer psychic energy and mental content. They allied with the Time Lords in their wars with the Great Old Ones however.

    A Chronovore also existed in eternity but was a humanoid monster that actually absorbed (and rarely gave) temporal energy from their victims, effecting their time stream and even wiping them form time completely. They were related to the Eternals in some way but banned from uniting with them, only one Eternal ever broke that law and became the Time Demon Kronos. They may have been degenerate or mutated Eternals.

    Many are incomfortable with many of these beings as they seem to introduce supernaturalism and even religion into the Whoniverse. But there are prohibitions against both in the stories, which are always science based. There is a place for ‘Magic’ and ‘Miracles’ in the stories but only in an imagined naturalistic context. Principally in terms of scientifically explicable psychisms and their dimensions. This can include the ‘thought forms’ or ‘morphic fields’ that may shape matter and energy in their manifest appearance, but these are thought of as fields under scientific laws that are manipulated by block transfer maths or even by lexical descriptions but never anything resembling ‘spirits’ or ‘souls’ or any hangovers from religion, as we then move into fantasy fiction rather than science fiction in the context of our tales. Alas some of these sixth dimensional beings come close to doing this and its hard to justify them. The Eternals are plausible as a general term for beings who have transcended the normal five dimensions, early in the history of the universe, and have some added influence over them, but some of their kin stretch credibility (at least in a science fiction context). Chronovores, beings who absorb ‘time energy’ are border line entities, while the Space Vampires may be a step across that boundary?

  4. Earth’s Timeline : A Human Chronology

    Civilizations existed on Earth long before the Mankind, such as the Great Old Ones, but here we are concerned with human history.

    Various races have tried to invade an obscure rock on the fringe of the Milky Way Galaxy called Earth, the reason for this interest remains a mystery. Perhaps partly incited by the quasi-invisible time traveling agents, the Silence, allegedly on Earth between the Stone Age until 1969.

    400 Million BC, holographic shape-shifting Scaroth, the last of the Jagaroth, exploded his ship on the Earth accidentally triggering life here. The explosion also caused a space-time fracture, catapulting Scaroth into the future, and ‘splintering’ him into twelve selves (shattering the walls of his alternative timelines?), all in telepathic communication, who established themselves in the future: a Caveman with fire skills, an Inventor with the first wheel in 3500 BC, an Egyptian Pharoah in 2500 BC, a Babylonian Astronomer in 1500 BC, a Greek Philosopher in 500 BC, a Roman Senator in the 5th century, a 12th century Crusader, a 14th century Printer/ Publisher, Captain Tancredi in the Renaissance, an Elizabethan Courtier, Cardinal Scarlath in 18th century France and Carlo Scarlioni in the 20th century. All of whom worked to accelerate human technology to aid the rapid development of a time machine that can return and prevent the crash.This fortunately fails (City of the Dead).

    Ancient Civilizations on Earth
    The Silurians were the first native civilization on Earth circa 80 Million BC, but went into hibernation in 65 Million BC (The Silurians). They claimed to have genetically engineered the lemurs(proto-apes) that became Mankind shortly before they departed from the scene. It is also speculated that octopoid Venusians (Venusian Lullaby) may have retained colonies here in the earliest Silurian era (Silurians are misnomer of course, they actually existed in the Eocine period or earlier).

    There may have been Ice Warrior colonies on Earth as long ago as 5 Million years BC, and again in 59,000 BC alongside the Gubbage Cone colonists, existing alongside our simian ancestors and early humans in those cases. They also sent missions around 12,000 BC, during which period Varga’s ship crashed (The Ice Warriors). They last visited Earth around 4000 BC where a small expedition was said to have influenced the Sumerians. Skaldak’s space craft crashed here in 3000 BC (Cold War).

    In the Prehistoric period, during the time of the Neanderthals (c 100,000 BC), there were known colonies of the Daemons, a 150 million year old civilization, with ‘a science indistinguishable from magic’ (this seems to have been not only an ability to manipulate energy with their minds, as well as create autonomous thought forms, but also to selectively alter the value of the energy constant C, allowing limited free energy, and transformations in size, mass and density and possible time distortions, making them one of the most powerful races in the universe. See Wild Tech below). They destroyed the Neanderthals and attempted to influence the evolution of Mankind, with the one who would be the last Daemon, Azal, entering suspended animation to monitor the results in the future. Another band of Daemons are said to have visited Earth as late as 10,000 BC where they influenced the civilization of Atlantis but ultimately destroy it (The Daemons). They continued to influence Earth and various other planets but ultimately died out as a race before the modern human period.

    The Urbankans leave their dying planet and arrive on Earth in Australia in 35,500 BC, they return in 15,500 BC, arriving in Ancient Mexico, and again in 5,500 BC, this time visiting China. With the power to create perfect androids and transfer consciousness into them they are the perfect colonizers (there last visit to Earth was in Greece circa 500 BC, they were defeated in space in the late 20th century (Four to Doomsday).

    An Atlantean continuity mystery and Cyber puzzle solved
    The Atlanteans are also implied to have been influenced by humanoid refugees from Mondas around 13,000 BC (Genesis of the Cybermen), giving Mankind Mondasian genes, and perhaps seeding the civilization, prior to the return of the Daemons who influence it further, and ultimately destroy it around 10,000 BC (The Daemons). An Atlantean / Minoan colony survives in the Mediterranean until 1500 BC, and calls itself New Atlantis, but later just Atlantis after the demise of its homeland, but was destroyed by Kronos soon after (The Time Monster). A remnant of Old Atlantis survived in caverns beneath an island in the Western Atlantic, where its refugees would later employ genetically engineered ‘fish people’, but this was destroyed in the 1970s (Underwater Menace). These places are referred to as the Three Atlantises in the lore. Mondasian genes were passed from the Minoan to the Greeks and on to the Romans and most of Mankind, and this made humans the most suitable species for Cyber conversion.

    The Osirans, a benign psychic race of technologically advanced aliens, with space-time tunnels and psionic devices, arrive from their Mars colony around 5000 BC and interacted with the ancestors if the Egyptians, whose Gods were based on them. Their most notorius arch-criminal Sutekh was imprisoned on Earth, but sought his escape in 1911 (Pyramids of Mars).

    5000 BC The Anubians, cousins of the Osirians, build an empire near our Solar System and Alpha Centauri. Some later interacted with humans in space but they never visited Earth (Curse of Anubis).

    In 3600 BC a Sontaran in Egypt is worshiped as a Toad God. He is in reality building a ionic cannon base to attack the Rutan fleet (The Gods Walk Among Us).

    2700 BC Ashtar (a descendent of the Osirians?) and her people are active in Mesopotamia. She falls into the Time Vortex and becomes the Timewyrm (Timewyrm)

    1500 BC Slitheen time travelers from 34,600 AD visit Earth, leaving behind a fish-man alien who founds Athens (The Slitheen Excursion). Was he the basis for the later secret Atlantean experiments?

    1164 BC The Exxilons, the last of a powerful interstellar race, millions of years old, visit Peru and influence Incan culture (Mawdryn Undead).

    1000 BC Three ‘Gorgon’ aliens visit Ancient Greece (Eye of the Medusa)

    A Nimon Cult influences ancient human cultures. The Nimons were minotaur-like poor cousins of the Osirans who used their psionic technology vampirically (turning psychic/life energy into a power source) or alchemically (turning physical energy into psychic/life energy). They traveled singular via limited transmat capsules, and collectively via constructed black holes. They had not developed time travel ability. Their agenda was to guild black holes and vampirize planets with the help of the cult members they granted immortality to. They visited Earth in 1000 BC and 350 AD both times linked to the Mithraic Cult (The Horns of Nimon and Seasons of Fear).

    79 AD Alien ‘Pyroviles’, a magma based lifeform, are linked to the eruption of Vesuvius.

    In 1492 AD the Mandrogora Helix, an astral lifeform said to have been charged with negative psychic energy for millennia, manifests during the Renaissance, and is served by the Cult of Demnos, who worship it as a Roman Moon God via human sacrifice. Following its defeat they are opposed by the aristocratic secret society called The Orphans of the Future, who protect Earth from alien threat and promote Humanist ideals (this later splits into the Crimson Chapter who regard all ETs as a threat, and the White Chapter who regard ETs as a potential source of enlightenment) (Masque of Mandrogora). Perhaps its ancestors influence Earth’s modern defenders. A Catholic Order, Sodality, claimed to have obtained a book endowed by the Daemons with limited time travel properties, allowing them to see the future and help propagate futuristic Renaissance values within Catholicism. The Daemon Mastho arrived and tries to stop them interfering with the Daemon’s ‘experiment’, giving them a one thousand year ultimatum which climaxes in the 25th century.(The Daemons). This seems to be the last Daemon mission to Earth, yet if the Daemons had time travel why was Azal in suspended animation?

    Early Earth Invasions
    The Medieval period saw some scouting and local incursions from the Zygons (in 1150 and 1592, and much later in the 1870s, 1880s and 1900 and later in the 1980s, 2013, 2130), as well as from the Rutans (in 1199 but not returning till 1900) and their arch enemies the Sontarans (1290 and 1522) along with the Saturnyns (1580), these were mostly initiated by accidental crashes during missions initially unrelated to Earth. The period also saw the arrival of an infectious alien Lycanthrope (1540), Fulgurite black marketeers (1564), the crow like Carrionites, in Shakespeare’s time, with their ‘Quantum Mnemonics’ inherited from the Old Ones, alomg with the ethereal Enochia race who contacted John Dee (Don’t Step on the Grass), and were trapped under Greenwich Park, and later the shape-shifting, vampirific Spira (The Demons of Red Lodge) and their more psychic cousins the Varaxils (The Witch in the Well), who arrived separately in the 1660s. All these had limited ambitions rather than the invasion of Earth (at least in their own times).

    The Zygons weren’t always very active at the time of their arrival, often using hibernation devices in the past, notably in 1150, and awakening much later in the 20th century, or in one instance in 1592 captureing Time Lord technology to launch an invasion into the future of 2013.

    However the Victorian era was particular active, with a Silurian nest opening in 1835, an alien Spring Heeled Jack in 1840, Jerintioan space vampires in 1860 and the earliest serious Dalek space-time incursion in 1866 (small scale time missions had only briefly visited earlier, but would later become more dedicated in the 1930s, 1940s, 1960s, 1980s and early 21st century). The first contemporaneous invasion attempts were made by the Animus and Zarbi in 1868, the undead Gelth in 1869 and possibly the Kraal with their robot mimics in 1881 (planning a return later in 1981). The Great Intelligence also first arrived in 1892, creating the Snowmen for one of the last great Victorian Invasion attempts. It would also send the Whisper Men back in time to 1893. The Zygons were active in the 1870s and 1880s and tried to pull off a secret invasion in 1894. The Great Old One Azathoth intervened across time in 1887, as did the Osiran Nephthys in 1896. Earlier in 1889 Marcus Greel had arrived from the future and committed various crimes in London. In 1879 Queen Victoria founds the secretive, private organization Torchwood to fight alien incursions (it would last to the early 21st century when its bases were all destroyed).

    20th Century Invasions

    This century opened with light Rutan scouting in 1900, repelled by the usual Time Lord. After this several alien visitations and minor incursions occured throughout the 20th century, too many to mention, but typically these are trivial incidents only mentioned in fringe sources (outside the canon) and are sometimes tales of dubious authenticity (contradictory to canon). But there are also many significant encounters not all of which are recorded in the primary canon material (those televised). This ‘significance’ can be a little subjective, but the key factor is consequence. Some visitations are of singule entities which have a local effect but do not effect history, and so can be ignored here. However Scaroth though initially singular had a crucial influence on human history and was definitely canon. Another singular entity was Skagra, a character from an oral tale that almost made the canon, and who nearly became a cosmic deity in the 20th century, so this is arguably both another significant exception as well as semi-canon (Shada). There are also grey areas such as the alien criminal Androvax, the last of the Veil, who was original an historically insignificant alien, yet when he found 100 of his fellow Veil, in the Alliance of Shade’s hyperdimensional Vault, he led them into space on a recolonization mission. However this has no influence on Earth so can still be classed as insignificant for human history.

    The most significant authenticated events in the 20th century begin with the arrival of the Judoon in 1902. These rhino-form space marines were former mercenaries who became a ‘galactic law enforcement agency’, blindly following instructions of self appointed, cosmic quangos, such as the ‘Shadow Proclamation’, a mysterious albino race, who took it upon themselves to create an arbitrary ‘law for all the galaxy’, and seem to have had limited time travel by the 21st century (perhaps filling a gap after the decommissioning of the Time Lord’s Shada). Their original private police were hired Ogrons, but these were later replaced by the Judoon. The Judoon often investigated ‘crimes’, acted as prison guards or chased escape prisoners. They had access to mass teleportation devices and containment fields. Though the role of tracking criminals was usually given to the bounty hunting Atraxi eyeball ships, who also ran private prisons. These would return to Earth periodically, notably in the early 21st century.

    Other significant events included increased Zygon activity in 1902, and later again in 1922, and the arrival of Family of Blood in 1913. The Weeping Angels first engaged with humans in 1920, and the Egyptian based Sontaran awoke in his suspension tomb in 1926, only to be killed shortly after all (though perhaps sending a signal out to the Sontaran Empire shortly before). The Vespiforms first attacked in the same year, and a sizable incursion by the psychically time traveling, humanoid Vondrax occured in Siberia the following year.

    But the most significant event in this early period was the return of the Great Intelligence, with the Yetis, in Tibet around 1930 (returning with them again in London in 1971, and allegedly in 1980 – in Yonder the Yeti). It adopted the Spoonheads in 2013 and the Whisper Men in the distant future, perhaps in all indicating a roughly 40 year cycle?

    Early Ice Warrior scouts may have also arrived on Earth in the 30s and 40s and there were Dalek Time incursions in the same period. The worm-form or leech-like Nemonites launched a significant incursion in Dover in 1940, as did the skeletal Torajenn a year later in Mexico. While ‘The Wire’ flew in on the radiowaves much later in 1953.

    The Forgotten Invasions
    A Dalek ship escaping the 2009 New Empire Invasion of Earth (before it was erased from history!) arrives in WWII and tries to manipulate the Allies. This is a trap for the Doctor to intervene and help create the elite New Paradigm Daleks from their original DNA. The latter exterminate the last New Empire Daleks and travel to the future where they will recreate and lead the Dalek Republic (Victory of the Daleks). This seems to have been eradicated from the history books as well.

    The Roswell Sagas 1947-1972
    A flying saucer crashed in Whoniverse’s version of Roswell in 1947, and its crew are captured by the US Military and confined to Area 51 / Dreamland. This was initially thought to be a crash of a Tzun craft by the Time Lords (First Frontier), but it was in fact a Nedenah scout ship (Dreamland). The ancient Tzun were a diverse race of the ‘large headed dwarf’ phenotype, who were masters of mind control and genetic engineering and could modify themselves into variant forms as needed (their space traveling vanguard were the black eyed ‘Greys’, but they also produced other variants, including various hybrid subspecies as middle management and indigenous clones who served on the worlds they colonized). They were an aggressive, military race who formed the imperial Tzun Confederation in 23,000 BC, after defeating the fungoid Darklings of Yuggoth. It seems the Nedenah were in contrast a more benign offshoot of the Tzun, who had evolved on a distant independent colony and launched missions of exploration in uncharted space (including Earth). They were also ‘Greys’ but were identified by their green rather than black eyes, and had been the first of their species to land on Earth thousands of years ago, interacting with Australian aborigines and Native American tribes. They would be followed to Earth by their apparent ancestors the Tzun much later in the 1950s following their reported crash and capture. This crash was due to a war between the Nedenah and the Viperox, insectoid invaders, during this period. The latter were a secretive colonizing race who arrived in small numbers and rapidly reproduced via nests of eggs laid by a Queen, which eventually hatched and depopulated a planet. The Nedenah tried to defend Earth but had failed (and may have brought in their cousins the Tzun to help). Why they didn’t defend against the many other invaders of Earth is unknown, but was perhaps due to their secretive research bases being located in Australia and the Americas. They had no recorded contact with Atlantis so probably arrived after 10,000 BC. They may have been aware of and in contact with the overlapping Exxilon colony, based in Peru in 1164 BC, who were millions of years older than even the Tzun, and possibly ancestral to them. But do not seem to have detected the covert Torajenn incursion a few years earlier in Mexico, perhaps partly due to its short lived nature and their preoccupation with the dreaded Viperox. They seem to have had a longer term off-world feud with the latter. A Tzun infiltrative, counter invasion was attempted in 1957, but was exposed and defeated. The Viperox Invasion emerged in 1958 but was likewise defeated with the help of the Nedenah.

    Later in 1977 the Nedenah also helped defeat the Waro, an ancient Goblin race, who had long secretly mined Earth for Cobolt, and may have also had an ancient score with the Nedenah, but eventually attempted a full invasion which of course was foiled by UNIT USA (The Devil Goblins from Neptune). These supposedly came from Titan, a uninhabitable moon of Neptune, but were possibly from another dimension of that place, and may have been the same as the ‘demons’ from ‘the outside’, invited to help conquer Earth by C19 conspirators in 1964. Both were ‘winged goblins’, though the Waro used artificial wings (the nature of the demon’s wings is unknown). All these beings were linked to the UFO phenomena from 1947 to the 1970s. Many of these beings also had contact with the mysterious ‘Alliance of Shades’, who deployed android MIB, whose agenda was to hide the presence of client aliens on Earth. The Viperox were the primary clients of the Alliance at this time and it helped them with their infiltration (but by 1972 it had been disbanded only three MIB androids remained guarding a secret alien

    The fate of the Nedenah is unknown, they left the Earth in the late 70s, and they may have been absorbed into the Tzun Confederation which would continue to exist until their fatal war with the Veltrochni in 2172. In 2371 they lost their last outpost near Antares, and were in constant conflict with the Sontarans who desired their advanced genetic knowledge. By the 26th century only a few thousand Tzun remained on their homeworld, though there are individual Tzun reported as late as 2 Million AD.

    Earth’s Secret Defenders
    In the late 1950s, following the invasion attempts of the Tzun and the Viperox, the CIA set up a counter alien Intelligence unit, this was mirrored in the UK with the foundation of C19, the British equivalent which worked closely with the CIA, and was staffed by former SIS agents. This British unit was largely based on Torchwood with whom it worked closely and took advice from. It also ran a vault of alien technology and the Glasshouse, an asylum for trauma victims in the military due to alien contact.

    In 1961 the UK MOD formed a special forces unit, linked to the RAF, the Intrusion Counter Measures Group to physically combat such threats, it engaged with the Daleks in 1963 and was placed under the control of C19.
    C19 was the intelligence wing while ICMG handled actual combat. By 1963 C19 had become became corrupt and was infiltated by right wing figures, and became closely linked with the CIA in the JFK plot (Who Killed Kennedy)and the attempted Wilson coup (State of Emergency). ICMG remained loyal and countered the coup, for which Wilson granted it a funded existence from 1964 to 1969 as both a military unit and a military intelligence group (transfering a few loyalists from C19). In 1970 it was absorbed into a new international group called UNIT. The British UNIT came under the command of Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart following his role in the Yeti incident of 1971. A reformed C19 continued as a UK Government-UNIT liason group and security cover from the early 70s, but soon returned to its old ways and was officially dissolved in 1993 (though an illegal network of its surviving members were still active in 2002 and had been involved in 9/11). UNIT had many international brigades, of which Britain’s was the largest, seconded by the Russian and American brigades. The former created after the Cyber Invasion of 1975 and the latter after the discovery of a Silurian Nest in Oregon in 1972, where it remained based. The US Brigade was infiltrated by the CIA in the 70s, which impacted on UNIT internationally, and had to be purged in the 80s. In the mid 80s its UN sanction was weakened in the UK and it would be nationalized as the ‘Unified Intelligence Task Force’ at which point the Brigadier retired. A status it retained to the early 21st Century, when it became truly international again. The international body changed its name to UNISYS at the turn of the century, though its old name stuck.

    In 2109 the various remnants of UNIT/UNISYS formed a space force, known as the the Space Corp which would eventually replace it. This saw action in 2115 (Nightmare in Eden). By 2135 it was the known as the Interstellar Space Corp and was battling pirates. It was destroyed in the first war with the Daleks. In 2600 it was reformed as the Marine Space Core with a remit to destroy the Daleks.

    The Modern Alien Invasion
    Apart from the little known attempts by the Viperox and Tzun, the Chameleons perfected the contemporary trend for urban infiltration and conquest in 1966 and were only narrowly defeated. In contrast The Silence was expelled in 1969 as Mankind left Earth for other worlds for the first time.

    Humanity would thus begin its journeys into outer space, returning the compliment for all those alien visitors to Earth over the centuries and eventually becoming invaders themselves. But subsequently the 1970s were to attract even more alien invasions. Following the Great Intelligence in 1971, came from Remoraxians in 1974, the Telosian Cybermen in 1975, having arrived on the Moon earlier in 1970 and then secretly infiltrated Earth (returning again on a smaller scale in 1985 once more via time travel). The Nestenes arrived later in 1975 and again in 1977 (returning more recently in 2013), the Vardans invaded in 1976, followed by the shape-shifting Mim and the ‘Ambassadors’ from from space, The Waro in 1977, along with the Fendahl soon after, and not forgetting the Axons in 1978, as well as an incursion from the Daleks later in 1978 (by time travel from the mid 22nd century). Indigenous incursions also occured when the The Silurians surfaced in 1976 and the Sea Devils in 1978. While Ice Warriors were encountered on Mars in 1977. A busy time! Perhaps some of these may be linked to the expulsion of the Silence in 1969 and the presense of certain renegade Time Lords on Earth there after (a last false flag space-time signal by the Silence or simply the Time Lord magnet?).

    Into the 80s
    Omega intervened on Earth from his domain outside of space-time in 1980 (and again in 1983). This year also saw the alien super-scientist Skagra, and his alien minions, almost become God through his mind synthesis projects (uniquely he was defeated in two different timelines, Shada). The Sontarans intervened on Earth, this time from the past into 1981. The Xaranti launched an invasion attempt in the same year (Deep Blue) and The Kraal also returned with their androids. Subsequently there were attempted invasions by the Zygons in 1982 and 1985, as well as the awakening of Skaldek and the return of the Ice Warriors in 1983. But most infamous was the arrival of the Mondasian Cyberman in 1986, which was proceeded and followed by various time traveling Cyberman and Dalek incursions. Rumour has it the Voord miraculous turned up in Penge in 1980 (The Tomorrow Windows), but perhaps through some bizarre timewarp (as they last existed on Marinus around 10 Million BC!).

    The TV Series ‘Professor X’, which fictionalised real events and added its own tales, is cancelled in 1980s when the Professor fought his last battle with the Cybertrons. This began a trend of fictional sci fi histories loosely based on real events that made this authentic history harder to define. The series was briefly revived in the early 21st century but failed to achieve the same level of popularity.

    The 90s relatively quiet, with the Drahvins arriving in 1990 and the Bandrils in 1993 (Dying Days). The Osirian Nephthys returned in 1996, soon followed by The Cold (Interference), while the notorious ‘Bat Creatures’ arrived in early 1997 (The Pit). The Autons were reactivated by a revived Nestene Intelligence in the late 1990s (Auton 1 and 2). But the most serious invasion attempt came from the Ice Warriors on May 6 1997, who were nearly successful. But by this time Earth had landed on Mars and were able to eradicate the Argyre Ice Warriors there in retaliation.

    The Dawn of the 21st Century
    The early 21st century saw a series of invasions from the criminal Slitheen in 2005, the superstitious slavers, the Sycorax, and the Roboforms in 2006, the arachnoid Racnoss arrived in 2007 along with the adaptive Krillitanes, the insectoid Uvodni and octopoid Bane followed in 2008, and finally the Sontarans in 2009. The Weeping Angels reappeared in 2007 and the Cybus Cybermen entered our dimension in 2006, with advanced Telosian Cybermen active in Colchester in 2011. In this period the Zygons broke through also from the past in 2013, but were repelled, and the Daleks broke throogh from the future but were sent back into the Void. The final incursion of this period was from the Great Intelligence in later 2013.

    A United Planet?
    In 2013 a World Confederation was achieved (Enemy of the World) and in 2020 a new species of humanized Silurian hybrid emerged in Wales. 2030 saw a Zygon invasion. From 2049 International Space Command was deploying Ion Rockets through out the Solar System. Later invasion attempts were made by the Korven and others in 2050, creating a near police state on Earth, but the most serious threat came from the Telosian Cybermen in space in 2050 and again in 2070, as well as the Ice Warriors in 2044 and again in 2080, both of whom were almost successful, and which led to the first Cyber War and the Thousand Day War respectfully, Mankind’s first space wars. They were won however and had the effect of fully unifying Earth for the first time. 2085-2089 saw the first Interstellar Mission. America is plagued by several invasions of the Myloki at the end of the century (a race strangely similar to the Mysterons of fiction). The battle leads to a second Civil War that goes nuclear, and the collapse of American society in 2118.

    Mankind first encountered the Daleks on Vulcan in 2120, named after the planet from Star Trek, a well known fiction in the Whoniverse (Power of the Daleks). An alternative history placed Vulcan as a planet in the Solar System encountered in 2020, unfortunately this doesn’t make sense in terms of the known planets, so an interstellar location is more likly. In 2130 another attempt by the Zygons was thwarted.

    Dalek Invasion of Earth 2157-2167
    Humanities luck finally ran out when the Dalek attack on Earth was successful and Earth was enslaved (2150 timeline 1). The occupation lasted at least ten years before Earth liberated itself. A brief second invasion occured in America in 2188. The recovery took a generation and ‘put technological advance back 200 years’, but ended with the first Dalek War which would bolster Earth’s presence in space.

    Early Human Space Travel (in more detail)
    20th Century (it has been observed with hindsight that Whovian Earth was ten years in advance of Real Earth in the series, both technologically and politically).

    1968 Earth sends a reconnaissance mission to Moon.
    1969 First Men on Moon. The Silence are repelled from Earth.
    1970 Alleged Space Battle with Cybermen on Dark Side of the Moon (in written accounts).
    1970 Time traveling Cybermen establish a base on the Dark Side of the Moon which is said to have existed in secret until 1988. However some sources say it was attacked by Daleks in the late 1970s (closing the time corridor?) and was only only reestablished in 1985 by a new Cyber mission before its closure in 1988.
    1975 Tobias Vaughan of International Electromatics, an ancestor of Mavic Chen, contacts the Cybermen. International Electromatics becomes the largest and most powerful corporation prior to IMC.
    1975 Massive Cyber invasion of Earth attempted, but defeated by UNITS international efforts. UN pushes for more global intergration as invasion attempts peak at the end of the 20th century.
    1976 Secret military Moonbase ‘Giant Leap’ established by NASA, or its equivalent in the history.
    1976 UK Interplanetary Society launches its fated ‘Mission to Mars’.
    1977 Earth’s first Mars Mission attacked by awakened Ice Warriors.
    1980 All space missions come under the control of the International Space Authority (ISA) in Geneva, under the United Nations. One of the first and most influential of an increasing number of international authorities.
    1986 Mondan Cybermen attack American spacecraft heading for Mondas.
    1995 Moonbase ‘Giant Leap’ renamed ‘Diana Base’ by Pentagon and used for mind control experiments.
    1996 The Base is Shutdown by an increasingly powerful United Nations the following year.
    1997 Ice Warriors try to invade the United Kingdom and Earth itself. Mars is counter attacked.

    21st Century First Colonization
    2010 Following investigations Diana Base converted to a neutral Moon Base under United Nations / ISA control.
    2012 Various free trade associations, similar to the EU and NAFTA, become the thirteen authoritarian World Zones, of North America (based on New York), South America (based on Rio), Europe (based on Berlin), Central Europe (based on Budapest), Central Asia (based on Moscow), South Asia (based on Delhi), South East Asia (based on Peking), East Asia (based on Tokyo), Austrasia (based on Sidney), North Africa (based on Cairo), Central Africa (based on Lagos), South Africa (based on Cape Town), Mid East (based on Tehran). Nation States are absorbed and abolished as anything other than grand local councils. Each zone has its own president.
    2013 During a period of boundary tensions The United Nations is converted into the World Zones Organization (WZO) in Geneva, creating a global confederation with an authoritive World President, over the semi-autonomous World Zones Each with a WZO Controller overseeing them.
    2015 An entire Moon Village is established for a new generation of Lunar colonists under ISA / WZO authority.
    2017 Mexican billionaire Ramon Salamander, scientist and corporate head, launches a conspiracy, involving blackmail, intimidation and murder, to control WZO and become World President from his base in Central Europe. His power is based on his invention, and corporate deployment, of a Solar Lens satelite with the ISA that abolished famine, making him the richest ‘philanthropist’ in the world.
    2018 The dictator Salamander is overthrown at his private residency in Australasia (Enemy of the World).
    2020 World Zones Organisation attempts to purge the Salamander Group and reform.
    2040 Earth to Moon T-Mat is invented. Lasers begin to replace bullets.
    2044 T-Mat Moon Station is Attacked by Ice Warriors seeking to Areoform Earth with fungal seeds.
    2050 Old Moon Base redeveloped as a top secret Research Lab.
    2050 Wheel Space Station W3 is attacked by Cybermen. X Ray Lasers in use.
    2050-2070 First Cyber War becomes Mankind’s first military encounter in space.
    2058 The first Mars Bases are established : Bowie Bases 1 and 2.
    2059 The Flood Incident : Alien parasite infects bases and is repelled.
    2060s North American Zone invaded by Myloki beings who slowly infiltrate. Prism formed to combat and defeats on Moon.
    2070 The new Moon Base is attacked by Cybermen who seek to control the Weather Control device there.
    2080 World Zones Organization splits into two blocks east and west, new Cold War begins.
    2084 Skirmishing with Silurians and Sea Devils in underwater complexes during Cold War.
    2085 The Ice Warriors launch a full scale assault on Earth using weapons of mass destruction.
    2086-2088 The Thousand Day War with Ice Warriors. Earth is victorious and briefly united.
    2086 First Interstellar journey to Proxima Centauri is launched.
    2090 First Contact with Arcturans. US Zone Military initiates Space Mining in Solar System.
    2090s Colonizer ships sent out using suspended animation and create autonomous colonies.
    2095 Mars Colonization begins. Corporate Mining begins to replace Military Mining.
    2096 Siloet (Prism 2) fails to prevent second Myloki invasion and American Civil War which goes nuclear destroying several US cities (Industructable Man).
    2097 US Zone badly damaged by Civil War and aborted Invasion. Euro Zone becomes new dominant World Power.
    2099 First contact with Alpha Centaurans. Earliest idea of a Interstellar Federation is mooted.

    22nd Century
    2100 Earth Central is founded uniting Earth Zones into a single State to counter rising Corporate Power.
    2100 Particle beam weaopons introduced by ISA.
    2100 First interstellar colonies, many owned by corporations, others independent and experimental.
    2109 Cybermen attack Space Station W4 (Legend of Cybermen). Space Corp Founded by ISA Earth Central.
    2120 IMC becomes the biggest Corporation in history and leads a corrupt Corporate community that rivals Earth Central in influence.
    2120 The Time Travelling Daleks are first encountered on Vulcan. Stun lasers introduced by Space Corp.
    2130 A Zygon invasion attempt on Earth is foiled by Unisys and Space Corp.
    2135 Space Piracy tackled by Interstellar Space Corp (Space Pirates).
    2140 Last of the Leviathan Colony Ships built. Warp Drive developed transforming space travel.
    2145 Avatar-like ‘Gangers’ produced as slaves, but go rogue and banned in many colonies.
    2146 Earth Central goes bankrupt. Earth Alliance of emergency regional puppet governments run by Corporations formed, IMC based in Europe is the most influential of these. Eastern Zones resist but lack power and withdraw.
    2146 A still weak American economy collapses, riots in most cities, power shifts permamently to Europe.
    2146 First encounter between Dalek Empire and the Corporate Earth Alliance.
    2149 Daleks destroy fifteen Earth colonies and deploy a huge invasion fleet towards Earth.
    2150 Cybermen active on Agora, a distant agrarian colony, but stay clear of Earth.
    2157 The Dalek Invasion of Earth (in alt timeline WW3 makes the invasion easier and permanent).
    2167 The Earth is liberated from Daleks, but is reduced to 19th century level.
    2180 New Earth Council begins to rebuild Human Civilization.
    2188 Tales of a Second Dalek Invasion centred on a Third World America, driven off in 2190.
    2190 Mankind returns to space, attempts to contact lost colonies and allies.
    2190 First United Planets Alliance formed against the Daleks (Earth, Alpha Centauri, Arcturus and others).
    2190s Surviving colonies recontacted many new colonies formed. Expansive direction towards Galactic Centre.
    2199 Cybermen driven off from isolated Agora colony by cyborg army from autonomous New Earth colony (itself presumably later destroyed).

    Humananity in Space?

    23rd Century
    Interstellar Earth Alliance is formed as Confederation from the Anti Dalek Axis. First Space Fleet created from allied planets within Earth Alliance, under military Earth Command, itself under Earth Council.
    The First Dalek War begins in 2200 AD. Daleks retreat in 2205 AD, and are not seen again till 2493 AD. In 2205 AD there is a brief war with the Selachians.
    Mars Colonization relaunched 2210 AD leading to increased conflict with Ice Warriors.

    Great Colonial Expansion of the Earth Alliance begins in 2230 AD. Many new interstellar colonies are formed under Earth Alliance Control.

    Legends of Cyber-Wars refer to this period, but are possibly false (as they are in contradiction of the historical ‘Disappearance of the Cybermen’ from at least the 21st to 25th centuries). Perhaps a confusion with a Cybertron
    tale from the Professor X series revived again in the 22nd century?

    In the late 23rd century Earth Council splits and WWIII breaks out on Earth between East and West Blocks, nuclear war devastates the East, West badly damaged, regional nationalisms reemerge along with a New United Nations. West retains dominance, East in regeneration centred on China in close alliance with Russia.

    24th Century
    Super-Light Drives with crews begin to replace cryogenic based Interstellar transports. Colonies now linked.
    Increased rapid colonization of the Galaxy as well as inner planets of the Solar System. Earth becomes less important as centre of Human power shifts to the colonies.
    Colonial Feudalism dominates Mankind’s presence in space as colonies declare autonomy under dictatorships.
    Earth’s UN Colonial Office maintains minimal legal oversight of these independent colonies.
    Macra Invasion of the Outer Colonies in 2366 AD is successfully resisted.
    Later in the century an Earth Federation is formed by Colonial Office as nation states reallign into traditional zones which federate and attempts to take control of colonies.
    Some Corporations form Colonial Syndicates in responce to this and resists the New Federation.

    25th Century
    World War IV breaks out in Early 25th Century between Europe and Sino-Russia. Both zones damaged by nuclear war, China will recover quickly and become an expansionist power, Russia shrinks, while United Europe remains dominant but recentered on Scandanavia (UK Capital moved to Scotland?). Conspiracy theories blame Colonial Syndicates for agitation.

    European led Earth Federation revived, attempts to reign in the Corporations on Earth and Colonies.
    A new Dalek War breaks out across Earth’s colonies uniting human factions (2459-2480).
    IMC (UK) infiltrates a weak Earth Government and dominates Earth Federation by 2472 AD.
    Korven launch an attempted invasion of Earth in 2480 AD.
    Tomb of Cybermen on Telos is discovered and closed down in 2486 AD. Balence of Private and State Power on Earth.
    Orion War with rebel androids breaks out in Late 25th Century.
    Early Cyber War begins in 2490 AD. Corporations are regaining dominance by end of century.

    26th Century (Century of Interstellar Wars)
    EarthGov formed by a newly anti Corporate United Europe Zone and Russo-China Zone 2501 AD.
    Earth based Corporations are brought under government control.
    Hyper Drives now make all space travel a routine matter.
    The Return of the regenerated Cybermen (Revenge of Cybermen).
    Era of Kroton and other humanised Cybermen begins 2502 AD but is short lived.
    The Great Cyber War Begins with incursions starting 2505 AD.
    Rise of the New Earth Federation under EarthGov, Colonial Corporations gradually taken over by 2510 AD.
    Earth Federation militarised and expansive, soon at war with the rival Draconian Empire 2520 AD.
    The Great Cyber War escalates from raids to full scale war 2520s.
    Anti-Cyber Alliance Formed 2526 from Earth Federation Allies and Draconian Empire.
    Earth Federation expanding influence with help from a now revived America 2530 AD.
    Cybermen are finally driven back but Earth Draconian tensions return. Neo-Salamandists admire Draconian Empire.
    A Second Draconian Conflict begins 2540 AD. Daleks agitate.
    Dalek Incursions begin in an attempt at Dalek restoration 2540-2575.

    The First Great Earth Empire is formed during space wars by Neo-Salamandist faction, officially lasts 2540-3000.
    Sontar destroyed by Rutans, first conflict of Sontaran and Human Empires 2550 AD.
    Earth Central, now under a revived Americam, abolishes redundant Colonial Office and becomes central power at height of Earth Empire 2573.
    Space plague cured and covert Dalek operations are defeated.
    America revives as major power and US President becomes President of Earth Central (an expanded EarthGov) 2580 AD.
    Mars is Terraformed as a permanent Second Earth. Deimos Opens 2585 AD.
    Terran Anarchist Utopia thrives in deep space, acts as neutral party in Earth vs Draconian Wars.
    Ice Warriors acting as interstellar mercenaries for several different civilizations.
    The Third Draconian War breaks out in 2592 AD.

    27th Century

    Earth Empire is weakened by Dalek and Cyber Wars as well as Sontaran-Rutan incursion and fragments.
    Order restored by a New Earth Federation and rival Fifth Axis (a fascist dictatorship over many colonies).
    Fifth Axis allies with the Daleks, but is defeated in brief interstellar civil war.
    Ice Warriors return to Mars after ice vaults in asteroid belt open. With Earth’s defenses overstretched this can not be challenged. Ice Warriors try to revive the planet as a New Mars, but can only occupy its icy poles due to Terraformed planet.
    Earth chairs the first Galactic Federation meeting on Io.
    Alliance against last Cybermen is formed and gains victories.

    28th Century
    The Cybermen are defeated by Galactic Federation, possibly in nuclear confrontation (though some Cyberships remain active and try to revive hostilities).
    Earth Empire briefly revived in alliance with IMC and becomes the dominant power in Galactic Federation. Dictatorship on Earth.
    Earth Empire Mining interests backed by Earth Empire exploit the Sense Sphere 2764 AD.
    Vigilant Laser Defence Space Station around Earth 2765 AD.
    Revolts occur on Earth against totalitarian rule weaken power of Earth.
    Most colonies become tacitly independent from ‘Old Earth’.
    Several local rebellions occur in interstellar colonies.
    A new era of Colonial Feudalism begins.

    29th Century
    Earth Government breaks up. Nationalism rises as well as anti-alien bigotry. Several human factions.
    Corporations run Terraforming Operations 2847 AD
    Origin of last Cyberman Incursion 2875 AD.
    Kaldoran Robots distributed throughout colonies 2880 AD.

    30th Century
    Terran-Sontaran Buffer Zone created.
    Overcities above polluted nations and colonies, Europe and other major powers impose enviromental laws. America and several other nations become uninhabitable due to heavy local pollution.
    Mutany on on the Solos Colony 2990 AD.
    New Dalek Invasion of Earth repelled, but old Earth order collapses in 3000 AD. New political forces emerge, remnants of Fifth Axis revive.

    31st Century
    Dark Age of the Terran Federation 3000-3050 AD (Blake Revolt, 700 years after the earliest human colonies, following an interstellar nuclear war and rise of new order and prior to the final victory of an Empress).
    Second Great and Bountiful Empire under Divine Empress orbiting Saturn 3050 AD (Servalan Dynasty?).
    Rise of the Foamosi as a major enemy of Earth 3050 AD.
    Earth Reptile Economic Confederation founded.
    Total collapse of Earth Empire at end of 31st century. Earth becomes isolationist.
    Local wars breakout on Earth completely cut off Earth from rest of Galaxy.
    The Outer Colonies are abandoned. Mechanus automated and under control of Mechanoids.
    Alpha Centauri chairs Galactic Federation in the absence of Earth reps.

    32nd Century
    The Ice Warriors finally abandon Mars and found New Mars on Halcyon 90 light years away.
    Ice Warriors battle Draconians for dominance and win (Cold Blooded War).

    33rd Century
    Ice Warriors become equal members of Galactic Federation with Earth and Alpha Centauri.
    Age of covert rivalries rather within Galactic Federation rather than wars.
    Ice Warriors serve as peace keepers in Draconian Civil War, but use it for own advantage (Cold Blooded War)

    34th century
    Earth begins to rebuild interplanetary civilization last remaining autonomous colonies of solar system absorbed.

    35th century
    Earth rebuilds its interstellar civilization, returns to Galactic Federation, reforms Earth Alliance.

    36th Century

    Return of Daleks into our Galaxy (absent since 31st Century).
    Earth Alliance Rearmed 36th-42nd Centuties to combat new Dalek threat.
    The Great Dalek War reignites.

    40th Century

    Peladon (ruled by part human dynasty) become neutral chair of Federation.
    Membership in this period was at least 12 primary members:
    Peladonians, Alpha Centaurans, Terrans, the New Martians, Draconians, Arcturans, Vegans, Terileptils, Zygons, Foamasi, the Balhoonians and the Mentors. This federation was threatened from Galaxy 5, who waged a clandestine war against it (perhaps under the ‘Embodiment of Gris’).

    41st Century
    Earth based Guardian of the Solar System exists. An Anti-Terran Galactic Council of seven galaxies is coordinated by the dictator of Zephon of Galaxy Five (probably Triangulum), acting for the Daleks of the 9th Galaxy (Seriphia, the smallest NGC 3109?) now occupying Skaro again (the sea-weedy Zephon wears a pendant like that of the Time Lord War Chief from the War Games over his cowled robe, perhaps indicating an alliance of his or his predecessor?) He has recently deposed the former tyrant behind the covert war, ‘the Embodiment of Gris’, probably with the help of the Daleks, and works closely with the Sentreal ‘cone beings’ from his own galaxy (maybe there is a foreshadowing of the Time War here). Other members are Zephon’s intergalactic allies the blue baldy, Celation, and the Master of Beau (of Galaxies 6 and 7, probably the Wolf and Sagitarius Nebulas?), along with another Dalek ally, and Zephon’s rival, the green faced Trantis of Andromeda (Galaxy 1 of course, the these numbers seem all to be relative to Andromeda), and his allies, coneheaded Gearon (of Galaxy 2, probably the SMC?) and the Daleks favourite, vein-faced Malpha (probably of Galaxy 8, perhaps the LMC). Galaxy 4 of the Drahvans is mysteriously absent (Bernard’s Galaxy? Perhaps the new centre of Cyber activity?). They were joined by the treacherous Salamandist Mavic Chen of Earth (our Galaxy 3?). Naturally they all betray each other.

    An Ice Warrior civil war between Traditionalists and New Republic rages elsewhere preventing them from joining in with this sinister alliance and the Cybermen were thought long dead.

    42nd Century
    Second Great and Bountiful Human Empire is founded by the Chen dynasty.
    Trigalactic Alliance formed with Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies (G1 and G2).
    Ood Planet near Sense Sphere is exploited by Earth’s Ood Operations Inc for Ood slaves 4106-4126.
    Second Empire is overthrown by Earth Alliance underground and members of the Chen Dynasty are expelled 4142 AD.
    Revived Earth Alliance battles the Dalek Empire. Era of Space Security Service agents 4150 AD.
    Earth Alliance is destroyed in Dalek offensive and retreats.
    The last Dalek Invasion of the Solar System wreaks havoc many colonies destroyed 4162 AD.
    Earth repels Daleks but withdraws to Solar System for centuries.

    46th Century

    Earth Alliance reformed and regains a few old territories.
    Daleks turn attention to Time Lords leaving former Earth Alliance zone.

    49th Century
    The century seems to have had little going on until its very end when World War V broke out. This seems to have been fought between a revived Eurasia, based on Siberia, and the Supreme Alliance of Eastern States, a federation led by China (and including Austrasia, India and East and SE Asia) under the dictator Magnus Greel, a half-Chinese, half-Australian madman. Eurasia is devastated in the war and the Alliance becomes the only Eastern World Power. A rebellion against it occurs in the Filipino Zone however the last remnant of East Asia Zone (Japan and Korea presumably having been destroyed also).

    Earlier in this century a limited form of Time Travel had been invented (presumably by the Russians) and this led to the creation of the Time Agency. Technology is at a height again but terrestrial politics keeps it grounded.

    50th Century
    The Western European Powers (including Britain?) reformed as the Scandanavian Alliance in the north of the Continent and north wetern Siberia (there also seems to be an exile American presence there, judging from the Time Agents of the period, though America is stiil a Third World country it seems). These expand their influence in the Western Hemisphere and create a World Computer that regulates their society. Tension grows with the Supreme Alliance of Eastern States under Magnus Greel. The Filipino Protectorate is the third great power in the World.

    Time Agents are still active in Scandanavia (presumably having inherited Russian technology). They would not be abolished, as a threat to stable timelines, until the 52nd century.

    51st Century
    The first year of this century is marred by the terrible months of World War VI between the Icelandic Alliance (having lost territory through invasions?) and the expansionist forces of the Supreme Alliance, advancing through Siberia. The Filipino Army saves Iceland and the Supreme Alliance is defeated. Magnus Greel steals a primitive Zygma Beam Time Capsule, invented in China, and flees backwards in time, fearing the Time Agents will follow him (Talons of Weng Chiang).

    The year 5000 is also often referred to as the ‘Great Breakout’, which refers to an expansion of human presence in outer space. Some non-canon sources refer to this as leaving the Galaxy (however this doesn’t happen till much later in most sources, and the term ‘Galaxy’ is completely misused in early Whovian sources to mean Solar System). More likely this refers to the record that Earth was confined to our Solar System for a thousand years after the collapse of the 42nd century. This period was its end presumably as the wars on Earth were now over.

    The end of the year 5000 sees the start of a New Ice Age, perhaps triggered by WWVI, and most of the Scandanavian region, Northern Europe and Britain is covered in ice (thawing it would awaken crashed Ice Warriors, The Ice Warriors). This may have also propelled the ‘Great Breakout’ from Earth.

    This was a period of ‘Clockwork Droids’ in the new generation of Spacecraft, who had been designed as emergency units in case of power loss (and perhaps inherited technology from WWVI, in which EM Pulses were highly common and could destroy all electronic devices even when shielded). One match famously malfunctioned and using the data base of the Time Agency modified a ship for time travel (5007). The period also saw the rise of new micro space predators, the Swarm (5001) and the Vashta Nerada (5020).

    An odd development in this century was the return of religion and a belief in the supernatural, perhaps due to the shock of an Ice Age (and subsequent Flood around mid century) following two World Wars within a century of each other. One development of this was the emergence of The Church, an organisation of space travelling religious fundamentalists (perhaps initialised by a revived Sodality Order).

    52nd Century
    By 5100 The Church of the Mainframe, complete with a powerful military wing (including bio-engineered ‘Headless Monks’), was the dominant power in the new Earth Federation. It was ruled by the super computer called the Papal Mainframe and its attendant, the Mother Superior. It created, recruited or was manipulated by, the Silence, memory invisible agents, who served them as confessor priests, as well as spawning its own factions. The Church became a totalitarian force, but was overthrown in the mid 52nd century by resurgent secular forces. This may have weakened the Earth Forces however.

    Later in the 52nd century hybrid Telos/Cybus Cybermen return in large numbers (apparently from an exile in another galaxy). The 3rd Cyber War begins and Earth fares badly. Later Earth destroys an entire star system to prevent their advance and win the War. The Cybermen would not be heard of again for almost a thousand years. Though small numbers would escape back in time from this period. Coincidentally the Time Agency is disbanded in the same era.

    At the very end of this century there are rumours of a nuclear war breaking out on Earth again (some sources contradict this, others put it later). There seems to be a gap of 200 years in Earth History after this.

    55th Century
    The Daleks are said to have returned and invaded our galaxy from the Seriphia Galaxy in 5425 causing massive damage to all its inhabitants, but to Earth and its territories in particular (Dalek Empire I).

    The last Thals settle on New Davias and become the frontline against the Daleks (5426). The Daleks, impressed by the Thals comradery, put a Thal factor in some Daleks, creating the Brotherhood of Daleks.

    At some time before the 60th century the Daleks are defeated.

    7th Millenium
    The last Cybertomb is activated and opens revealing a new super Cyberman force. The 4th Cyber War is fought on fringes of Terran territory in 6000 (Nightmare in Silver). The Cyber Force survives but is finally driven back in 6080 during a fifth Cyber War.

    Solar flares cause Earth evacuation in 6087. Earth depopulated and the federal GalSec Era begins.
    GalSec mankind’s largest colony becomes a central authority over a federal alliance of colonies.
    Battles between Earth refugees and the insectoid Wirrn from Andromeda last for generations.

    8th Millenium
    The Charl insectoids occupy Earth and begin a new civilization.

    Dalek launch a suprise attack on GalSec but are repelled after Dalek War from 7500 AD onwards.

    The Third Great and Bountiful Human Empire arises in 7790 AD and oppresses the entire Galaxy. It creates a holographic fantasy world based on a mythical Medieval Earth on Caligaris Epsilon 6, manned by robots and genetically engineered beings (A Fairy Tale Life). This hid the brutal reality of the degeneracy of the Empire and its wars. Mummy On The Orient Express may slighty predate this?

    9th Millenium
    The Earth Empire is said to rule over three galaxies (probably refering to the Greater and Lesser Megallanic Clouds).

    10th Millenium
    Earth Empire collapses. Return of GalSec command as the coordinating body of a broad confederation.

    11th Millenium
    GalSec quarantines last Rutan-Sontaran War which has now diminished into a series of skirmishes among survivors.
    New Earth Republic emerges and centralises GalSec.

    12th Millenium
    A militant human faction repopulates a now habitable Earth and creates an independent colony.

    13th Millenium

    ‘New Roman Empire’ rules over the Earth for several thousand years before collapsing.

    17th Millenium
    Earth is recolonized and reintergrated into GalSec once more becoming an important centre of human culture.

    201st Millenium
    Fourth Great and Bountiful Human Empire of a million colonies under Jagafress emerges circa 200000 AD, it is centred on a revived New American Alliance.
    Attempted Dalek Infiltration of the Earth Empire is exposed and invasion launched, it is defeated 200100 AD, but not before its initial attack has depopulated North America.

    A new more enlightened Human Federation emerges centred on Asia and governs the Galaxy for millennia.

    302nd Millenium
    Earth enters into a long conflict with the ‘Warlord’ Civilization 310000 AD (The War Games)
    The Warlords use a rogue Time Lord as advisor in perfecting their time travel technology.
    An army of humans from different time zones are kidnapped and brainwashed to invade the Earth Federation.
    The Time Lords intervene and return the kidnapped solders to their proper time zones.

    Far Future and a Second History

    The current Earth Federation and Civilization collapses in 2000000 AD. A new history of several millenium begins.
    Four thousand years later a space faring civilization is restablished and begins a new colonisation.
    The cloned Monoid race become the willing servant class of that civilization for millennia.

    57th Segment of Time (in Time Lord Chronology*)
    Earth is threatened again by deadly solar activity, which again massively depopulates it.
    The Great Arks carry last humans to New Earths on Refusis and Frontios around 10000000 AD
    A huge colony Arc carrying scientific humanists heads towards Refusis, along with their Monoid servants.
    A Monoid rebellion and dictatorship is defeated with the help of indigenous Refusians in 10000700 AD .
    The colonists settle on Refusis II and achieve a cultural symbiosis with the local Refusians.
    A second Space Ark, carrying a more military community, lands on Frontios and another human colony is settled there. This coloney engages with the insectoid Tractators (apparently adopting retro gear from the 31st century!).

    Five Billion Years in the Future
    Earth had become inhabitable again and some human refugees had returned, but it was finally destroyed when the Sun became a Red Giant and incinerated the inner planets.

    Barely recognisable Human refugees existed in small colonies throughout the Universe until 100 Trillion AD
    (probably evolving in a Mekon-like fashion over millions of years in diverse isolated colonies).
    The last humans become the hostile Toclafane, brains in vestigial heads contained in sepherical cybernetic drones with spacetime travel ability. Ironically around the same time there are legends of Cybermen gaining cloned biological bodies and becoming one of the most benign species in the universe.

    End of Universe….

  5. Time Lord Timeline
    Nothing is more difficult than a timeline for people who have mastered time travel. Only a dozen races in the Whoniverse are certain to have become ‘time active’ (though unverified tales tell of more). Other than former masters of time, such as the Great Intelligence and other Great Old Ones of the Dark Times, such as the Archons (thinly disguised Yithians from HPL) in The Nameless City, these included : the Time Lords themselves as well as the Daleks, though the latter only develop dimensionally transcendent time machines in the 40th century (at least in timeline 1, this is delayed for a thousand years in timeline 2); then there are the Nekkistanni (The Apocalypse Element), an obscure slug like race whose ships could enter the Time Vortex, and according to one account rescued Davros in the 48th century, making the new series stories possible. Mankind in the (Talons of Weng Chiang), had developed a basic form of time travel around the 50th century (banned in 52nd century but upgraded by Time Lord intervention later on). The Sontarans also used a limited form of time travel (which might indicate the Rutans had the same). A much cited use of time travel was also attributed to the Monan Host (the Apocalypse Element), a gestalt species apparently from the Andromeda Galaxy. Other than this other time traveling races would be the Osirans (The Pyramids of Mars), who developed spacetime tunnels thousands of years ago, though ones which affected their timestream and so aged or de-aged them (however as they lived for thousands of years anyway they weren’t normally too bothered by these, just limited in range). The time travel capacity of the Daemons is unknown though sometimes hinted at (perhaps late in their history). But both these are thought to have died out long before our era. Others are mentioned in various tales, such as the Phaidonites, the Unvoss, the Virgoans and the Sunari, but little is known of these, while others claims derive from dubious accounts in fringe publications. The Time Lords were said to have convened a conference of all existing time active races prior to the Last Time War, on Archetryx, but it was sabotaged by the Daleks. Some technology sharing still occurred following this however and several these races became officially known as the Temporal Powers. (The Apocalypse Engine)

    The Mysterious Origin of the Time Lords
    As with Earth Gallifrey was formerly inhabited by Reptoid beings but these died out allowing the Gallifreyans to evolve. During the Last Time War the Daleks traveled back to this time to prevent them evolving, but this failed (Engines of War).

    The name Gallifrey is of unknown meaning, some say it came from a Gallifreyan, which itself meant ‘those who walk in shadows’, but his may be a back formation from a contempary Pythian title for the race. The original name for the planet was ‘Jewel’ according to an unreliable source (Return of the Daleks). But this may be an error too, Gallifrey may have become a term for a jewel later or before in the same way Planet Earth correlates with mineral earth. Another clue is that the star around which the neighbouring planet Karn orbited was called Polarfrey, which might mean it was considered the Pole Star of Gallifrey. If so and Frey means ‘star’ then Gallifrey could something like ‘great star’ and originally have been the name of its Sun. Thus Rassilon may have renamed Jewel as Gallifrey IV, for example, a more scientific term for a planet (just as Earth is sometimes called Sol III). This later was shortened to Gallifrey, perhaps…
    The Gallifreyans were said to have been the first humanoids to have evolved after the Dark Times. In the process creating a humanoid ‘morphic field’ (Lucifer Rising) that would effect evolution on many other planets (in other words explaining the ridiculous number of humanlike races, Time Lords, Humans, Kaleds, Thals, Peladonians, Mondasians, War Lords, Logopolitans, Drahvins, Dulcians, Dominators, Vardans, Drornidians, Alzarians, Minyans, Anethans, Kahler, Tivolians, Argolins, Canisians, Trakenites, Trions and the Pre-Movellans to name a few, as well as all the bipedal races!). It would sometimes be speculated that all these humanoid species also have some special psychic and fated connection, though none matched the legendary psychic potential of the Time Lords. Certainly there is a mysterious link between the Time Lords and Humanity, as well as with the Logopolitans, Drornidians, Minyans and of course the Kaleds (as Daleks).

    The Gallifreyan records of their early history are incomplete and largely based on vague legends and myths, thus it is not surprising that many of the accounts of Ancient Gallifrey are so contradictory. The Time Lords were not above deliberately mythologizing their history eiher based on their own ideological stance and propaganda (The Deadly Assassin). The primary source, the Black Scrolls of Rassilon are probably almost entirely propaganda, though is not the only material available. All this makes their early history doubly obscure. However the Time Lord Archives are the only surviving record of this era.

    There are several conflicting dates for the beginning of the first Gallifreyan Civilization, 10 Million years ago (The Ultimate Foe), 5 Billion years ago or even older (The Five Doctors). They are said to have achieved Galactic dominance millions of years ago, but to have also existed in the final years of the Dark Times (when the Great Old Ones ruled), which ended 4.6 Billion years ago (Silver Nemesis). Some even suggest they existed before the Dark Times (which seems unlikely, as these are often said to extend back to the beginning of the Universe). But it is very hard to pin a date on any of this. There are one or two clues though.

    Gallifreyan history is divided into the Heroic Age, the Pythian Age and the Rassilon Era and beyond. There are certain clues as to the dating of these. It is said that they intervened in the Rutan War in the late Pythian Age for instance, but this began around 6 Million BC and the Pythian period lacked physical time travel so it must have been contemporary. Also the Rassilon period is said to have begun in the era of the 508th Pythia. Given an average lifespan of a later Gallifreyan being 450 years this may indicate the the Pythian Age lasted around 200,000 years, which is actually a realistic time span for a civilization. If we take this Rutan claim seriously we can date the start of the Pythian Age to 6,200,000 BC. This ties in very closely with the 10 million year claim for Gallifreyan civilization and suggests the Heroic Age covers much of the remaining four million years, and was an era of war and conflict, suggesting this is just a romantic euphemism for the entire history of the Gallifreyan species from apeman to spaceman. A time scale of this kind would be equivalent to the first human ancestors to the present era, which would thus be roughly equivalent to the technological development of the first Pythian Age (probably a little more, given the developed psychic abilities of Gallifreyans). Thus the Pythian Age ends and the Rassilon Age begins in 6 Million BC in a similar timespan to our 200th Millennium (making them quite slow developers! Though the Pythian technological sceptic culture may have been responsible for that). (Time’s Crucible)

    This however leaves one large discontinuity, the legends of Time Lord activity at the end of the Dark Times around 5 billion years ago. As some of these legends involve Rassilon however, who has already established to have been born billions of years latter it is likely that these ancient battles were the results of early travel. Curiously the battles are said to establish the Gallifreyan civilization so this may involve a closed time loop in which the Gallifreyans travel to the past to perform tasks that ensure their emergence as a species. Namely the defeat of the last of the Great Old Ones. This might explain the source of the Daleks plan to negate Gallifreyan evolution in the past. The legends of Time Lord Wars in the distant past presumably led the idea the Gallifreyans evolved there. But it was here that they are simply said to have been a great power who lead the Fledgling Empires (including the Logistomancers, Archons, Hoothi, Thulans, Jagaroth, Chelonians, Old Venusians, Rutans, Elders and the Hervoken) of five billion years ago against the last of the Great Old Ones, who they killed, imprisoned or caused to go into hiding for many aeons (The Infinite Quest, Forever Autumn etc). In the last decades of this era they fought its remaining inhabitants the Mandagora Helix, Great Vampires, Carrionites, Nestene Intelligence and finally the Racnoss (The Runaway Bride). These seem to have needed defeating to allow later life to evolve in the Universe, including the Time Lords, who were paradoxically required for the victory. Rassilon lead the attacks (State of Decay), but one of his contemporaries, the Other, played a major role as the wielder of the starbursting Hand of Omega (Remembrance of the Daleks). The Time Lords also remained a presence when the Fledgling Empires began fighting each other for dominance in the ‘peace time’.

    The legends of Time Lord activity before the Dark Times (Agent Provocateur) is absurd but may also relate to time travel extended back to the beginning of the Universe, which seems very likely. But there is another complication, the singular term Dark Time is also used for an early period of negative Gallifreyan history. When exactly depends who you ask, Rassilon supporters claim it was the superstitious Age of the Pythia, while others use it for Rassilon’s dictatorship. The term also seems to have become conflated with the much earlier Dark Times adding to the confusion.

    The Birth of the Gallifreyan Empire
    The relatively ‘primitive’ Gallifreyan society was a space traveling society at an date early, probably at the end of the Heroic Age. In the Pythian Age it is said to have become one of the most powerful interstellar civilizations in our Galaxy, run by the Pythian priestesses of a matriarchal religion, under the rule of a high priestess called The Pythia and her council. But by the time of the 254th Pythia (6,100,000 BC) Gallifreyan culture was said to be ‘superstitious’ and rejected a technological path. But it was also a society which fully utilized its psychic potential and so had a great advantage over other races (particularly due to a power of prophecy). It still developed technology at a slower pace, though and remained a major interstellar power, while much of its technology incorporated Psionic devices and ‘living’ technology. It also developed an elixir that caused physical rejuvenation and extended their lives fourfold.

    The College of academics controlled technology and looked after general administration on Gallifrey, but were subordinate to the Pythia and had lower status than the monks and priests. The College was responsible for mastering the transmat technology which by the last days of the Pythia could teleport from one star system to another. At their height they would rule over a ‘just empire’ that covered much of the Galaxy (shared with the Archons, Rastons, Jagaroth and of course the Rutans and Sontarans). In later times it was claimed this became tyrannical (Time’s Crucible).

    The Rassilon Era (Lungbarrow etc)

    The Rassilon Era began with the Gallifrey’s ‘Intuitive Revelation’, a rationalist enlightenment which began a cultural conflict with the Pythia. This was essentially a cultural coup arising from a faction within the College. Rassilon closed down the temples, sanctuaries and monasteries and imposed a new techno-rationalist order which became the foundation of Time Lord culture. The Pythia were dis-empowered and persecuted (or overthrown by liberators depending on who tells the story). They fled to Karn, Gallifrey’s nearest neighbour, where they became the Sisterhood of Karn in order to continue their ancient culture.

    Rassilon became a tyrant on Gallifrey, but also created the Time Lord culture, initiated research into time travel and brought many other technological advancements that would create the Time Lords and so was a hero to others. He worked closely with a Gallifreyan stellar engineer, remembered as Omega, to create the first time machines.

    There is much debate on the merits of both cultures, basically science vs magic. In reality of course these were just two different paradigms for explaining different aspects of the psycho-physical universe (but set in a science fiction framework the Gallifreyan rational materialists had to win out for the Time Lords to exist!). The question of who was the real tyrant remains open.

    Time Lord Moral Dualism Issues
    The Time Lord religion posits two primal forces of Good and Evil. But this is one of the main problems with Time Lord ideology in that it confuses Order and Chaos with the naive mythos of Good vs Evil, making their culture highly morally dualistic and therefore subtly repressive, in terms of the actual holism of Nature. Similarly, on another level, they also have developed a tendency to confuse psychopathology with an ‘evil’ nature, the Daleks being the paradigm case. This has caused them much trouble in their history, though fortunately is often challenged (Into the Dalek).

    In reality Order and Chaos (or Creation and Destruction) exist in near equilibrium (with the positive dominant until the Entropic death of the Universe). This balence is also consciously regulated by the White and Black Guardians, probably the humanoid avatars of the Great Old Ones, Othkkartho and his father Azathoth (this makes the Black Guardian equivalent to Nyarlathotep!). These were alien beings of the previous Universe who became all powerful there and survived in our Universe as intelligences within the primal forces of Nature. The Beast was probably simply the emanation of Azathoth in our Galaxy, who inspired the idea of Satan, as well as the Horned Beast of Daemos, the Horned Dragon of Draconia and the Kaled War God (The Satan Pit). The Black Guardian is thus also related to the Beast, though is more powerful being closer to the universal Azithoth. All the Guardians tend to be understood by the Time Lords in terms of their religion and morality. One tale describes a war between Abaddon and Puccm, as a similar battle between Order and Chaos, though one very much linked to Earth. We can thus assume that these were the manifestations of Othkkartho and Azathoth in out local star system.

    Gallifreyan Time Travel
    The Pythia did not have physical time travel but were still highly concerned with the future and utilized their psychic abilities for precognition and astral projection. Though they had transmat technology.

    The first physical Gallifreyan time machines are also said to have functioned more by psychic means than physical ones, at least the transformations of space-time they produced were said to have been the product of psychic manipulation. This seems to have been produced by the College in the late Pythian Era but was supressed. This was the Time Scaphe, perhaps the first Time Ship to exist.

    However the Archons claimed the Gallifreyans stole this technology from them. These beings were referred to as the last of the Old Ones, and were thus probably known as Yithians on Earth. Later Rassilon began to develop a more ‘scientific’ version of this technology.

    Time travel started in a simple form on Gallifrey but its history is a closely guarded secret (to be explored as part of a more general post on sci fi time travel). The original form adopted from the Archons was probably the basic Time Corridor. This tunneled through the Void, the inhospitable zone between universes outside of local space-time, which was simply a point to point transfer.

    From this Rassilon generalized the Time Vortex, which is said to be a time corridor that simultaneously links all points in our space-time and even beyond it. A kind of tunnel in quantum superposition, how this is achieved is never described but space-time travel perhaps involves collapsing the wave function of the vortex to one particular corridor. It is likely that the key was block transfer mathematics, calculating the desired description then projecting it as a thought form into reality. This process is too dangerous to travel unprotected as in a normal Time Corridor and so needed a vehicle to be teleported in and out of it. The first of these were very basic craft the most advanced were dimensionally transcendent Tardises. A simple device was the Time Scoop, a pyramidal drone that traveled the vortex and literally scooped up people.

    The Time Scoop would be misused by Rassilon for his Games in the Death Zone, an isolated but monitored region of space-time on Gallifrey where beings were forced to fight in gladiatorial combat that became an obsession for many Time Lords. This was later banned by Rassilon himself under peer pressure (some claim he was never even involved). But it would be occasionally reactivated by later rogue Time Lords, who introduced banned contestants such as the Daleks, Cybermen and Raston Robots. The latter was the most advanced and deadliest of all combat robots produced by a lost race, as ancient as the Gallifreyans, who are said to have destroyed by their own creations long ago).

    The Death Zone was manipulated by a central control tower only accessible by Rassilon’s Time Scoop, and with only a one way teleport back to the Gallifreyan citidel. When Rassilon was overthrown the Tower became his personal Tomb and the Death Zone thought to have been shut off permanently (Five Doctors)

    The subsequent development of Time Travel was held highly secret by the Time Lords, but a main stumbling block was the huge amount of energy it required. This was solved by the ‘Stellar Engineer’ known to history as Omega, who used a device he simply called The Hand to create a Black Hole. This being the most powerful source of energy in the Universe. Omega developed technology that would collapse a star small enough to be contained within Gallifrey as a restrained micro Black Hole capable of supplying almost infinite energy to the Time Lords. Alas in the process he fell into the Black Hole, some say due to the treachery of a jealous Rassilon. The early experiments with Naked Singularities also opened up gates to several alternative universes and created a multitude of impossible creatures, all of which caused much trouble for the Time Lords and had to be contained.

    Rassilon took control of the Eye of Harmony as Omega called it and also invented a way of multiply locating it or its analogue in all Tardises, giving them the power they needed (again probably by affecting a connection the using block transfer maths). Unbeknown to the Time Lords Omega had survived within the Singularity and used its properties to create his own reality, much as the Mind Robber had in the Void, yet he retained the power to reach our into our Universe (Three Doctors).

    The ultimate invention was of course The Tardis, a sentient AI guided time machine grown like a person in a Loom and forming a psychic link with their operator. The most advanced of these in Rassilon’s time were the first dimensionally transcendent (‘bigger on the inside’) Mark I Tardises, effectively bubble universes budding out of our space-time. Tardises could move between universes too, though with great difficulty. The technology would be constantly upgraded by the Time Lords and Tardises evolved from the basic Types 1 Mark I – IV designed by Rassilon to the Type 107 Mark IV, which was more or less a sentient being with a wide range of capabilities (the Doctor stole a museum piece Type 40 Mark I Tardis that had probably be designed around thousands of years before his time). In total there would have been almost 500 generations of Tardis developed over 5 million years (which seems to give one new Tardis every 10,000 years!). Time Lord buildings, space stations and even paintings also became dimensionally transcendent at the greatest height of their civilization, and were infinitely modifiable through Block Transfer Maths.

    Some legends claim that Rassilon’s early time travel experiments allowed the Giant Vampires to return and a new war to begin, but this is not certain. It has been claimed however that this terrible war turned the Time Lords away from warfare to more subtle intervention and even strengthened the non-interventionists.

    Time Lord Society (Lungbarrow)
    As Rassilon took control of empire the Gallifreyans became sterile and he had to develop cloning Looms to reproduce them (another source attributes this to The Other). The few superstitious Gallifreyans left blamed the Sisterhood of Karn for this ‘curse’, but there is little evidence for the accusation. The Looms weaved adult Gallifreyans from pooled genetic material and were given to each Family, or House of the Time Lords, as a particular recipe. It gave them a natural lifespan per regeneration of at least 450 years.

    Every family consisted of genetically determined Loom cousins and belonged to one of six Chapters. The Ruling Chapter was the saffron clad Prydonian Chapter, under the senior House of Blyledge which spawned Rassilon. These were mainly authoritarian aristocrats, but the Chapter also contained many rebels. These included the Doctor (Lungbarrow House) and the Master (Oakdene House).

    According to the controversial Tome of Miles the disruptive House of the Paradox Faction broke away from the rebellious House of Lungbarrow at some stage in Gallifrey’s history, and were outlawed for their deliberately creation of paradoxes and chaos. They were essentially the inverse of the Time Lords and used the occult means of the Pythia and Archons as much as Tardises. These exiles then had to obtain Remembrance Tanks to reproduce themselves, biomass pools into which the memories of a person were fed as thought forms, to create a new perspective of that person. The Remembrance Tank’s origins are not clearly stated but may have been Daemon technology (the Faction preserved many Daemon items). Human allies of the Faction from the 26th century were also allowed to use the Tanks, creating an allied species called the Remote. The Faction continued to be vilified by Gallifreyans for becoming double agents in the penultimate Time War against an undefined ‘Enemy’.

    The other Chapters were the green clad Arcalian Chapter, the college of time technicians founded by Omega; the purple robed Patrex Chapter of artists, scholars and intellectuals; the silver clad social democrats of the Dromeian Chapter; the blue clad solders of the Cerulean Chapter and the lowest caste of the pink robed Scendles Chapter. Each Chapter was governed by a Cardinal, Junior Cardinal and Under-Cardinal in order of caste hierarchy.

    The ruling High Council of the Time Lords was drawn form these, and others of distinction. Its Inner Council consisted of five members the senior Lord Cardinal; the Lord Chancellor, who governed the Time Lord Academy; the Castallan, in charge of security, to whom the Commander of the Guards reported; the Inquisitor, in charge of the courts, all under an elected Lord President when democracy was introduced. Other members were added in time of war.

    Rassilon was the genius behind most of this Time Lord technology, including the basis of time manipulation, the Looms, genetic Regeneration and the Matrix, as well as various weapons based on time control (or at least he claimed credit for all these). All of these are said to have been developed around 6 Million BC.

    Regeneration technology appears to have had its roots in the Sisterhood of Karn’s Elixir of Immortality. This is said to have been a powerful bioactive potion, combined with psychically generated life force, which both vivified a depleted Time Lord and deconstructed their biological form, allowing it to recombine anew. Vital energy alone can heal damage but only so far (you can patch repair a damaged house so much until its foundation is undermined and its overall structure falls apart). The only answer then is to take the structure apart and reconstruct it, if possible. This would seem to be the role of the Elixir, to biochemically dissolve cellular combinations and genetics of the subject allowing them to recombine afresh. The latter being facilitated by a supercharge of vital force carrying the new ‘morphic field’ for the recombination. In this reality the morphic field seems to be a mental image contained or implanted in the subject’s memory field which is somehow preserved in the process. Rassilon’s input was to genetically code a release of the biochemical analogue of the Elixir in times of death trauma in all Time Lords born in the Looms. The energy input would be provided by any technological device that accumulated life force, ultimately a Tardis, and the new image taken from the subject’s unconscious mind, consciously imagined, or mentally. The mechanism was genetically restricted to twelve regenerations, probably to avoid a population explosion, though also because it seemed to require increasing amounts of energy, perhaps as irreparable segments increased. This would reach a natural psychic limit and was even difficult technologically, without sapping limited shared resources. This would only be allowed, with appropriate genetic modification, under the rarest of circumstances. Exposure to the Elixir could trigger an early Regeneration and lose a ‘life’. Over time some Time Lords seemed to be able to train themselves to to select a particular morphic image, and even extend the transformation to ‘try on’ a few different ones. This was probably only possible if the subject was well yoga mind trained, fully conscious and not in death trauma, and had consciously induced the process, shortening their lives. It was no doubt also much easier in early Regenerations that required less energy. The Regeneration process was never guaranteed and could lead to permanent bioentropy if a new stable structure was not obtained within a given time (probably dependent on the amount of life force available). On one occasion an intermediate form was generated for the Doctor that has never been satisfactorily explained. A final regeneration would also tend to become unstable and degenerate.

    The final creation of Rassilon before his demise was The Matrix, which as its name suggested was a virtual universe in a supercomputer. Its purpose was to pool all the experiences of the Tardises as data to create an accurate simulacrum of the universe which could be used to calculate the Web of Time, a model of all the necessary fixed events in time that created their past and present as well as predict the unknown future. It was this that lead the Time Lords to believe the Daleks would become the masters of our Galaxy and move to stop them. People could also enter the Matrix via a headset or be coded in after their death. Every regeneration of a Time Lord existed there too but it is unknown if this was as a simulcrum or their coded essence. A downside of the Matrix was its ability to be falsified by the most advanced coders. Oddly people could also enter the Matrix in one point and exit it at another as if their whole being had been transformed into an electrical image.

    Time Lord History
    The early Time Lords were certainly not adverse to intervention, in 150 Million BC according to one popular tale (Quantum Archangel) they launched the Millennium War against the The Mad Mind of Bophemeral, a supercomputer called the Great Attractor, with block transfer computational capacity, which had destroyed the advanced race that built it, and had subsequently created its own vast artificial lifeform army. In its aim to dominate the Galaxy it had taken over control of much of the robotic life and advanced AI it encountered. Regarding this period as crucial the Time Lords traveled back in time and formed an alliance of Osirans and Daemons against the Mind, with support from a multitude of civilizations including both the Sontarans and Rutans, as well as the silicon based Kastrians, the Exxilons and Uxarieans. But it was Kronos and one particular Time Lord from the future who saved the day as usual. These events must have involved Rassilons Time Lords from 6 Million BC who were traveling back to defend a much earlier timeline. Once more we seem to have a necessary time loop that determines the emergence of the Time Lords .

    The last reverse time war of the Time Lords was their battle against the Fendahl in 12 Million BC, in which they attempted to time lock the creature. Again this can all be regarded as an attempt to protect the evolution of Gallifrey. How they knew of these crucial times is unknown, but they may have left messages in the past for their future selves constituting several closed time loops. After these events Rassilon declared it a ‘Law of Time’ that Gallifrey cannnot interact with its own past or future.

    Rassilon was eventually overthrown and sealed in his tower in the death zone, but the Empire he created lived on for millennia, despite an increasing number of anti-war Gallifreyans and non-interventionists. There are rumours of class conflict in this period also (and later) as some in the Deadly Assassin claim the Time Lords were a ruling class who kept time travel to themselves (but this was also denied in other stories).

    Sometime after the Rassilon Era (some say as late as 5 million years ago) the Time Lords gave their neighbours the Minyans advanced technology, but they used it to start a nuclear war, and this is usually given as the reason for a non-intervention policy. It would be strictly enforced by the Castallan. The only exception was their protection of ‘the Web of Time’, their theoretical model of the ‘fixed points’ of history that could not be changed without creating dangerous paradoxes. The Time Lords enclosed Gallifrey in a protective force field and became largely isolationist (Underworld).

    This principle of non-intervention was often flouted by renegade Time Lords but these would often be captured and severely punished. Strict penalties were once in place against the transgressor of this isolation, ranging from execution to cryogenic imprisonment. But in later eras this would become more lenient.

    At some unknown period the Time Lords fought two Time Wars with ‘The Enemy’. The nature of the Enemy was unknown and they were perhaps invisible or formless (perhaps Vardans?). In the first war the Faction Paradox and their allies the Remore played both sides against each other. In the second they second they allied with The Enemy. Its era is uncertain but the two wars are said to be a thousand years apart and the second war occured under the 413th President, the Doctor’s former assistant Romana. It is unclear when she becomes President however or from which time period she originally came (her many sagas are highly contradictory and can be interpreted as occuring in many time periods, though some indications suggest she rules just prior to the Last Time War (The Apocalypse Engine)). She first appears during the Guardian’s machinations to stabilize or disrupt their problematic time situation using the Key of Time (Key of Time sagas), so could come from any period. She may also act in a variety of time periods, much like the Doctor, thus explaining the complication of the dates (she also seems to be the Guardian’s first agent, before the Doctor is brought in as her senior). Time travel makes history complicated. But what can be deduced is that given the average 450 year life span the 413th President probably ruled nearly 200,000 years after Rassilon, which is still very ancient history (though a fiddle factor might suggest each aeon starts the count again, to avoid the Time War President being the 20,000th President!). Of course President Pandak III is said to have ruled for over 900 years in the Deadly Assassin! But the Ancestor Cell claims President Greyjan only lasted 3 days, so the average of 450 years remains plausible. Another clue is that this Time War used Type 94 War Tardises and later the first generation of Type 102, while the Last Time War Tardises are thought to be Type 107s. If the earlier calculations are correct (and its a big if) this puts the Wars about 16-20 generations of Tardis apart, given each has around four subtypes. Placing the Wars around 155,000 – 195,000 BC (we could further speculate 13 cycles of 999 Presidents, or 450,000 years, in which case Romana would be the 413th President of the current era, and if the ressurected Rassilon was the symbolically apt 999th President of the current cycle, would date to the earlier of that range.

    This dating leaves about 5 million years of unrecorded history between their Isolation and this second Time War, in which an enormous about of history must have occured!

    Around 35,000 BC the Time Lords seem to have become a moralistic Galactic police force, and ran a prison planet called Shada for those interfering with the Web of Time. This mainly held renegade Time Lords from all time periods, but was also said to hold Daleks, Cybermen and Zygons. After several escapes this was abandoned and replaced with penalties ranging from disintegration for serious crimes to exile without a Tardis for minor crimes. While in wartime dimensionally transcendent Prison Arks were used for prisoners of war, such as the Genesis Ark which held a million Daleks. An interesting speculation here is that the Time Lords called in to defeat the Warlords by the Second Doctor, who look very different to others, might be Time Lords from this period.

    The greatest tragedy in Time Lord culture was the rise of the renegade Morbius, whose campaign to be Lord President was motivated by his desire to return the Time Lords to an interventionist Empire. It not stated when this happened but one guess is that Morbius was born in the 1950s in Earth chronology (based on nothing more than the origin of the name and a reasonable chronology). Given the life span of Gallifreyians and later events he probably came to power sometime after 3000 AD (5725.3 Rassillon Era). What is interesting is it is said the Doctor left Gallifrey shortly before Morbius’ rise to power. A commonly assumed date for this is in the 27th century. However what ‘shortly’ means to a ten million year old civilisation is anyone’s guess. It is interesting that the Doctor becomes President in Romana’s time, perhaps indicating 200,000 BC is nearer their own time?

    Morbius was eventually rejected by the Time Lords and left to form his own Time Empire, around 3100 AD, some tales referring to him as the Imperator. He created a mercenary army based on the provision of Gallifreyan technology and the promise of immortality. Some sources suggest this army included the Dravidians, a Mantis-like species, and possibly also a range of insectoid beings, including the Macra, the Birastrop (six armed insectoids) and the Mutts (renegade mutant Solonians?), all of whom often seemed to later visit Karn, the last resting place of their leader. It is sometimes implied the Daleks may have been sympathetic, making it the earliest precursor of the Last Time War. Incredibly one tale claims the Doctor built an anti Morbius Alliance of Sisterhood of Karn, the Human Empire, the Draconians, Ogrons, Ice Warriors, Sontarans and even Cybermen. This doesn’t appear in any of the timelines of these races making it hard to date however. The 32nd century would be the best guess, a time when the Ice Warriors were still nomadic mercenaries, the Cybermen were no longer a local threat, and probably largely operating unrecorded outside our galaxy, as were the Daleks, leaving the Ogrons free of their masters, while Human Empire was in decline and divided into many factions with rival agendas, so not hard to find at least one supporting faction. Whoever was involved Morbius was defeated and formally disintegrated by the Time Lords after a trial on Karn. In the only televised tale of him, he returns on Karn after it is revealed his brain was saved and placed in a Frankenstein-like body made from crash survivor’s body parts in 3120 AD (this timing is based on the presence of a Solon Mut on Karn and the cycle of mutation on Solon as given in Ahistory).

    The Origin of the Doctor
    Theta Sigma, as the Doctor was once known, claimed to have a memory of life in the Loom. One legend told of a Time Lord called The Other who challenged the dictatorship of Rassilon, but on failure lept into a loom declaring he would return (according to one source he was the inventer of the Loom). Some believed the Doctor was the Other retuned (which would tie in with rumours the Doctor took part in the wars of the Dark Times.

    His own timestream was something of a mystery he was born 450 years before his first regeneration and stole his Tardis 220 years earlier at the age of around 230. According to most published sources he regenerated a second time at the age of 500, just 50 years later, then again 248 years later at 748, 65 years on at 813, 87 years later at 900, just 53 years on at 953 and 57 year later at 1010. After this the film and New Series Doctor gets confused about his age and tends to claim he is 900, or later 1200, more likely he regenerates at around 1085, 1160, 1435, 1510 and 1585, if his lifestream follows the same general pattern as in the Classic Series. Obviously he has far more of a life in each regeneration than is shown in the televised stories (around 75 years on average, but it varies widely). It’s odd that his lives are this long of course, what on earth (or off it) does he get up to in all those years? Problematically the Tardis claimed it had been travelling with him for 700 years, but this can’t be matched with his real timestream unless the guestimates above are wildly inaccurate and his later regenerations are unusually short (not more than a year or two), and even then it means there must be earlier inaccuracies (the 7th Doctor can’t be older than 925 at his regeneration in this case and probably a fair bit younger). This would roughly match the 900 year claims of the New Series, and perhaps the younger the Doctor appears the shorter his life, however the War Doctors claim to be 400 year younger than the Matt Smith Doctor refutes this. Another alternative would be that the Tardis is only counting back to the beginning of the Time War when the Doctor would have been around 1000 (its memory banks having been affected) making him 1700. This would been the guestimates were accurate, though its still likely his last regenerations were somewhat shorter. But whatever the case it indicates he may have been born around 4000 AD, unless he spent most of his life in other times then its impossible to say.

    The final event in the Time Lord chronology was the Time War against the Daleks, which can be dated to the recorded disappearance of the Daleks around 5000 AD, but took place across time. This was screened off from time travel or it might have become very complex indeed. This is still an active tale in the series, though we now know that the Time Line has been changed again, with the War Doctor no longer engineering the mutual destruction of the Time Lords and the Daleks, but rather helping the other Doctors transfer Gallifrey into a pocket universe and allowing the Daleks to annihilate each other.

    The technology of Sci Fi from a speculative science point of view is covered in our sister blog Phantasy Physics, which looks at the realities of ray guns, space ships and time travel etc. However Sci Fi, being a literary phenomenon in the main, often involves speculation that extends beyond established scientific possibility into wilder speculation and pseudoscience, at a point where it shades into science fantasy. This speculation cannot be completely dismissed or accepted as valid science, so will be explored here.

    Energy Manipulation
    The idea that energy states can be directly manipulated in a non-causal manner is beyond current science but is an idea often used in science fiction and fantasy. For instance kinetic energy can be transferred to a wall say, as well as converted to some sound and a little heat energy, by throwing a ball at it, all within the laws of physics, but kinetic energy can’t be transferred or transformed at the push of a button, which would be manipulating the laws of nature rather than following them. Yet this is often depicted in stories.

    How this could be done is a mystery, but it is often assumed that the Laws of Nature might be based on their own manipulable fields rather than a set of mathematical ‘topological’ rules fixed by the structure of space-time as mainstream science assumes. This in itself implies a foundational reality which in theories influenced by Psychism dovetails with psychic energy and deep thought forms. Thus the technology is often seen as Psychic, Psionic (tech that enhances psi) or Psychotronic (tech that reproduces psi by energy conversion to from psychic energy). In non Psychic paradigms alternative mechanical forces are assumed, but this is rarer in Sci Fi (probably as it is somewhat paradoxical for a machine to change its mechanism).

    One of the most dramatic modes of this would be energy manipulation, and I propose here different aspects of the manipulation with several levels, starting with the basic physical aspects. Not all aspects or levels would be achievable by a given technological application.

    The Technological Transformation of Physical Energy
    Here one form of energy could be converted to another form, for instance the Kinetic Energy of a moving object could be converted to heat, sound, light or electromagnetism, or even converted to potential energy, at which point it would stop moving in space (or fall to the nearest gravity field), while becoming hot, noisy, luminescent, magnetic or electrically charged, or any combination of these, according to the conversion applied. If this was to potential energy it would presumably be attracted to the nearest gravity field even more strongly. Similarly a hot object could be cooled with a bang or a flash, or simply frozen, or a charged or magnetic one neutralized with or without a similar effect. Energy could be harvested from this in standard ways, or it could be used as a weapon or other instrument. But energy could not be created or destroyed.

    A transformation to gravitational energy would allow the manipulation of Space, allow Anti-Gravity and possibly create Wormholes.

    The Technological Channeling of Physical Energy
    Here energy could simply be diverted elsewhere, for instance the kinetic energy of an object could be dissipated causing it to become motionless in space, or fall to the strongest gravity field, with the emission of a shock wave in all directions or even a defined one. A hot or charged object could suddenly be induced to radiate all its heat away or discharge suddenly.

    This would likewise be able to sculpt Space via gravitational energy.

    A combination of these two levels in a third level could channel the energy away in a different form and even reuse it in someway. The Kinetic object might stop with a flash of light or bang instead of a shock wave. Or a hot or charged object cooled or discharged in a flash light.
    An advanced level might simply transfer the energy to another device or storage unit.

    The combined levels would allow great manipulation of the structure of Space.

    Transphysical Aspects
    Given a Psychic aspect the energy could be transformed into psychic energy and stored in batteries (or crystals perhaps) or even absorbed by skilled conscious beings. Conversely psychic energy (including will and strong emotion) could be converted to physical energies and channeled or utilized.

    Some theories of Time (particularly those of Whovian or Trekie origin) postulate Temporal Energy aspect. A high charge of this was akin to the effect of gravitational energy on space, curving it and causing mass to increase and distances shorten, in this case slowing down time and enhancing temporal perception. A loss of temporal energy or the presence of negative temporal energy would cause time to speed up and temporal perception to become lighter. An overload or complete absence of Temporal Energy could lead to time to stand still and its object to cease to exist. All other energies could be converted to Temporal Energy or vice versa. In Star Trek Temporal Energy could interfere with transporters and cause accidental time travel, and was later used in time machines. In the Doctor Who series Chronovores were said to ‘eat’ Temporal Energy, while this in itself was closely linked to psychic energy as a combined Artron Energy, which was at the core of Tardises.

    Psychic or Psychotronic Control
    Some beings evolve the ability to do all or some of this psychically, these elite energy manipulators, others need psionic enhancement of their abilities, while most would have to use psychronic technology that can reproduce these effects.

    The Manipulation of Constants
    An advanced aspect of this technology would be to manipulate the constants of nature. One useful technique would be to manipulate C, which could cause temporal, mass and size shifts, as well as the ability to create or destroy energy in significant amounts. In theory it has endless applications, including the ability to strengthen or loosen (or disintegrate) molecular and atomic bonds by increasing or decreasing the energy held there. This can be used as an explanation for the powers of entities such as the Daemons and other Godlike beings in Sci Fi.

    Matter to Energy
    Another aspect may be the ability to convert matter to energy, and in advanced levels back again, sometimes with organic life preserved. Allowing a mastery of the difficult art of Luminal Teleportation.

    The potential for ideas here is endless and only a few have been tapped by imaginative sci fi writers.

  7. Time Travel as a Possibility in Fiction

    This covers the use of Time Travel in fiction, along with its theories there, it overlaps with an essay in Phantasy Physics on the history of the idea and the real science behind it. This essay is far more speculative in its conceptual boundaries.

    Time travel in the classic Dr Who series is ironically rarely discussed in detail. The most primitive attempt was made in 1866 by Prof Maxtible (Evil of the Daleks), who claimed to be working with an array of mirrors and static electricity, without going into much detail. This seems clear pseudo-science and techno-babble. Though there could be a grain of truth to it, a mirror rotating at the speed of light (nigh impossible) will in theory generate several virtual photons from the vacuum, which in turn will produce a brief gravity well, albeit a microscopic one. Similar a pulsating EM field (such as one theoretically producable from an electrostatic spark generator) will cause several virtual photons to be generated from the vacuum on a magnetic mirror created on an electrical SQUID circuit. Both these effects would only produce a tiny gravity well to manifest for a brief moment before dissipating. If the effect could be magnified a billion times (and almost certainly can’t in the real world) then a micro blackhole could be generated. Perhaps this was possible in the Whoniverse, and explains the multitude of mirrors in the Time Room. A Dalek Time Corridor would probably detect that and latch on to it, bartering time travel technology for service, as happened in the tale….

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